S-3
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 10, 2020

Registration No. 333-                

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

STOKE THERAPEUTICS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Delaware   47-1144582

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

45 Wiggins Avenue

Bedford, MA 01730

(781) 430-8200

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Edward M. Kaye, M.D.

Chief Executive Officer

Stoke Therapeutics, Inc.

45 Wiggins Avenue

Bedford, MA 01730

(781)-430-8200

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

Effie Toshav, Esq.

Robert A. Freedman, Esq.

Julia Forbess, Esq.

Fenwick & West LLP

555 California Street

San Francisco, CA 94104

(415) 875-2300

 

Robin A. Walker, Esq.

Stoke Therapeutics, Inc.

45 Wiggins Avenue

Bedford, MA 01730

(781) 430-8200

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box:  ☐

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered (1)

 

Amount

to be
Registered (1)(2)

  Proposed
Maximum
Offering Price
Per Security (3)
 

Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate

Offering Price (3)

 

Amount of

Registration Fee (4)

Common stock, $0.0001 par value per share

               

Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share

               

Debt securities

               

Warrants

               

Subscription rights

               

Units

               

Total

          $400,000,000   $51,920

 

 

(1)

There is being registered hereunder an unspecified number of shares of (a) common stock, (b) preferred stock, (c) debt securities, (d) warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities of the Registrant, (e) subscription rights to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities of the Registrant, and (f) units, consisting of some or all of these securities in any combination, as may be sold from time to time by the Registrant. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with other securities registered hereunder. There is also being registered hereunder an unspecified number of shares of common stock, preferred stock and debt securities as shall be issuable upon conversion, exchange or exercise of any securities that provide for such issuance. In no event will the aggregate offering price of all types of securities issued by the Registrant pursuant to this registration statement exceed $400,000,000.

(2)

Pursuant to Rule 416(a), this registration statement also covers any additional securities that may be offered or issued in connection with any stock split, stock dividend or similar transaction.

(3)

The proposed maximum offering price per share and proposed maximum aggregate offering price for each type of security will be determined from time to time by the Registrant in connection with the issuance by the Registrant of the securities registered hereunder.

(4)

Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

 

 

The Registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 


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If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box:  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering:  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earliest effective registration statement for the same offering:  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☐

 

 

 


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

 

   

a base prospectus, which covers the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $400,000,000 of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, subscription rights to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and/or units consisting of some or all of these securities; and

 

   

a sales agreement prospectus covering the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $150,000,000 of our common stock that may be issued and sold under a Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement, dated July 10, 2020, with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. and Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated.

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The sales agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The $150,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the $400,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us under the base prospectus.


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities, in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JULY 10, 2020

PROSPECTUS

$400,000,000

 

LOGO

Stoke Therapeutics, Inc.

Common Stock, Preferred Stock,

Debt Securities, Warrants, Subscription Rights and Units

 

 

From time to time, we may offer up to $400,000,000 aggregate dollar amount of shares of our common stock or preferred stock, debt securities, warrants to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, subscription rights to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and/or units consisting of some or all of these securities, in any combination, together or separately, in one or more offerings, in amounts, at prices and on the terms that we will determine at the time of the offering and which will be set forth in a prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. The total amount of these securities will have an initial aggregate offering price of up to $400,000,000.

You should read this prospectus, the information incorporated, or deemed to be incorporated, by reference in this prospectus, and any applicable prospectus supplement and related free writing prospectus carefully before you invest.

Our common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “STOK.” On July 8, 2020 the last reported sales price for our common stock was $23.40 per share. None of the other securities we may offer are currently traded on any securities exchange. The applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing on The Nasdaq Global Select Market or any securities market or exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus.

 

 

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the information under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page 5 of this prospectus before investing in our securities.

Common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, subscription rights and/or units may be sold by us to or through underwriters or dealers, directly to purchasers or through agents designated from time to time. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such underwriters or agents and any applicable fees, discounts or commissions, details regarding over-allotment options, if any, and the net proceeds to us will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is                , 2020


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     PAGE  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     2  

RISK FACTORS

     5  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     6  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     7  

INCORPORATION OF INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     8  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     9  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     10  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     12  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     17  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     24  

DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS

     26  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     27  

LEGAL MATTERS

     28  

EXPERTS

     28  

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, from time to time, we may sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings, up to a total dollar amount of $400,000,000. We have provided to you in this prospectus a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities under this shelf registration process, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. We may also add, update or change in the prospectus supplement any of the information contained in this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus and the prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement; provided that, if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement. You should read both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Neither we, nor any agent, underwriter or dealer have authorized anyone to give you any information or to make any representation other than the information and representations contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement. We and any agent, underwriter or dealer take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information others may give you. You may not imply from the delivery of this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, nor from a sale made under this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, that our affairs are unchanged since the date of this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or that the information contained in any document incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or any sale of a security. This prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement may only be used where it is legal to sell the securities.

THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO OFFER AND SELL SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY AN ADDITIONAL PROSPECTUS OR A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.

In this prospectus, unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “Stoke,” “Stoke Therapeutics,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Stoke Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation.

 

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights information contained in other parts of this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus from our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020 and our other filings with the SEC listed below under the heading “Incorporation of Information by Reference.” This summary may not contain all the information that you should consider before investing in our securities. You should read the entire prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus carefully, including “Risk Factors” and the financial data and related notes and other information incorporated by reference, before making an investment decision. See “Forward-Looking Statements.”

Our Company

We are a biotechnology company that is pioneering a new way to treat the underlying causes of severe genetic diseases by precisely upregulating protein expression. We are developing novel antisense oligonucleotide, or ASO, medicines that target ribonucleic acid, or RNA, and modulate precursor-messenger RNA, or pre-mRNA, splicing to upregulate protein expression where needed and with appropriate specificity to near normal levels. We aim to develop the first precision medicine platform to target the underlying cause of a broad spectrum of genetic diseases in which the patient has one healthy copy of a gene and one mutated copy that fails to produce a protein essential to health. We utilize our proprietary technology platform, Targeted Augmentation of Nuclear Gene Output, or TANGO, to design ASOs to upregulate the expression of protein by individual genes in a patient. Our approach is designed to allow us to deliver in a highly precise, durable and controlled manner disease-modifying therapies to a wide range of relevant tissues, including the central nervous system, or CNS, eye, kidney and liver.

We designed our lead product candidate, STK-001, to treat Dravet syndrome, a severe and progressive genetic epilepsy. With a well-defined patient population based on routine genetic testing and learnings from drugs approved for the treatment of Dravet syndrome to inform the clinical and regulatory pathways for STK-001, we anticipate an efficient clinical program for STK-001.

We submitted an investigational new drug application, or IND, for STK-001 to U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, in late 2019. In the first quarter of 2020, we received communication from the FDA confirming that we may proceed with clinical dosing in the planned Phase 1/2a clinical trial called Monarch. The single ascending dose portion of this trial is in two parts, A and B, and is designed to evaluate STK-001 in children and adolescents ages 2 to 18 years of age with Dravet syndrome. Part A allows dosing of two cohorts. We are currently preparing to enroll and begin dosing patients in Part A of the study in the second half of 2020.

Part B of the study will evaluate the higher doses of STK-001. The FDA has placed a partial clinical hold for the doses planned in Part B of the study. The partial clinical hold was not due to any identified manufacturing or safety issue, but rather was because additional safety information is needed from preclinical testing to determine the safety profile of doses higher than the current no observed adverse effect level or NOAEL. The NOAEL was determined using data from a pivotal non-human primate study that evaluated intrathecal delivery of single dose levels of STK-001. The highest dose administered in this study was equivalent to a human dose that is higher than what we plan to administer in Part B of our Phase 1/2a clinical study and did not demonstrate effects that were considered adverse. It is the FDA’s position that in order to support administration of STK-001 doses above those planned in Part A, additional nonclinical data to identify any potential safety issues of STK-001 at higher doses will need to be provided. We have completed a single-dose toxicology study to more fully characterize the safety profile at higher doses. We are in the process of preparing our complete response to the FDA in order to facilitate the removal of the partial clinical hold and proceed to Part B of the study. Upon FDA clearance, we will plan to proceed with the higher dosing cohorts planned in Part B of the study. We still anticipate preliminary data from the study in 2021.



 

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We intend to nominate a second candidate for preclinical development in the second half of 2020.

The Securities We May Offer

With this prospectus, we may offer common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, subscription rights to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, and/or units consisting of some or all of these securities in any combination. The aggregate offering price of securities that we offer with this prospectus will not exceed $400,000,000. Each time we offer securities with this prospectus, we will provide offerees with a prospectus supplement that will contain the specific terms of the securities being offered. The following is a summary of the securities we may offer with this prospectus.

Common Stock

We may offer shares of our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share.

Preferred Stock

We may offer shares of our preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share, in one or more series. Our board of directors or a committee designated by the board will determine the dividend, voting, conversion and other rights of the series of shares of preferred stock being offered. Each series of preferred stock will be more fully described in the particular prospectus supplement that will accompany this prospectus, including redemption provisions, rights in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or the winding up, voting rights and rights to convert into common stock.

Debt Securities

We may offer general obligations, which may be secured or unsecured, senior or subordinated and convertible into shares of our common stock or preferred stock. In this prospectus, we refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities together as the “debt securities.” Our board of directors will determine the terms of each series of debt securities being offered.

We will issue the debt securities under an indenture between us and a trustee. In this document, we have summarized general features of the debt securities from the indenture. We encourage you to read the indenture, which is an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

Warrants

We may offer warrants for the purchase of debt securities, shares of preferred stock or shares of common stock. We may issue warrants independently or together with other securities. Our board of directors will determine the terms of the warrants.

Subscription Rights

We may offer subscription rights for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. We may issue subscription rights independently or together with other securities. Our board of directors will determine the terms of the subscription rights.

Units

We may offer units consisting of some or all of the securities described above, in any combination, including common stock, preferred stock, warrants and/or debt securities. The terms of these units will be set



 

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forth in a prospectus supplement. The description of the terms of these units in the related prospectus supplement will not be complete. You should refer to the applicable form of unit and unit agreement for complete information with respect to these units.

* * *

Stoke Therapeutics, Inc. was founded in June 2014 and was incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware. Our principal executive offices are located at 45 Wiggins Ave, Bedford, Massachusetts 01730, and our telephone number is (781) 430-8200. Our website address is www.stoketherapeutics.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of, and is not incorporated by reference into, this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.



 

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RISK FACTORS

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. The prospectus supplement applicable to each offering of securities will contain a discussion of the risks applicable to an investment in our securities. Prior to making a decision about investing in our securities, you should carefully consider the specific factors discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference in the prospectus supplement or appearing or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should also consider the risks, uncertainties and assumptions discussed under Part II, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020, which is incorporated herein by reference, and may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our operations.

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and documents incorporated herein by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks and uncertainties. We caution readers that any forward-looking statement is not a guarantee of future performance and that actual results could differ materially from those contained in the forward-looking statement. These statements are based on current expectations of future events.

Such statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding expectations and intentions, costs and expenses, outcome of contingencies, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, objectives of management, debt financing, our future results of operations and financial position, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, business strategies, market size, potential growth opportunities, prospective products, research and development costs, and the timing and likelihood of success, the ability to develop and obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize STK-001 and future product candidates, timing and results of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, expectations about timing and execution of anticipated milestones, including enrollment in Part A and Part B of our Phase 1/2a Monarch clinical trial in Dravet syndrome and timing of the results thereof, the ability of TANGO to design medicines to increase protein production, the intention to nominate a second candidate for preclinical development and the timing thereof, and other statements that are not historical facts. You can find many of these statements by looking for words like “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “may,” “might,” “should,” “will,” “could,” “plan,” “intend,” “project,” “seek” or similar expressions in this prospectus, in documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any free writing prospectus. We intend that such forward-looking statements be subject to the safe harbors created thereby.

These forward-looking statements are based on the current beliefs and expectations of our management and are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. If underlying assumptions prove inaccurate or unknown risks or uncertainties materialize, actual results may differ materially from current expectations and projections. Factors that might cause such a difference include those discussed in Part II, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020, as well as those discussed in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any free writing prospectus. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this prospectus or, in the case of documents referred to or incorporated by reference, the date of those documents.

All subsequent written or oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. We do not undertake any obligation to release publicly any revisions to these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as may be required under applicable U.S. securities law. If we do update one or more forward-looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the securities offered hereby. This prospectus, which constitutes a part of the registration statement, does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement, the exhibits filed therewith or the documents incorporated by reference therein. For further information about us and the securities offered hereby, reference is made to the registration statement, the exhibits filed therewith and the documents incorporated by reference therein. Statements contained in this prospectus regarding the contents of any contract or any other document that is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement are not necessarily complete, and in each instance, we refer you to the copy of such contract or other document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement.

We are subject to the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act and are required to file annual, quarterly and other reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet site (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and various other information about us. You may also inspect the documents described herein at our principal executive offices, 45 Wiggins Ave, Bedford, Massachusetts 01730, during normal business hours.

Information about us is also available at our website at http://www.stoketherapeutics.com. However, the information on our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

 

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INCORPORATION OF INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those other documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. A Current Report (or portion thereof) furnished, but not filed, on Form 8-K shall not be incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings we make with the SEC under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the termination of any offering of securities made by this prospectus:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 23, 2020;

 

   

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on May 15, 2020;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on April 15, 2020, June 4, 2020 and July 9, 2020;

 

   

the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on June 11, 2019 under Section  12(b) of the Exchange Act, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description, including Exhibit 4.3 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 23, 2020; and

 

   

filings we make with the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act after the date of the initial registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement.

We will furnish without charge to you, on written or oral request, a copy of any or all of such documents that has been incorporated herein by reference (other than exhibits to such documents unless such exhibits are specifically incorporated by reference into the documents that this prospectus incorporates). Written or oral requests for copies should be directed to Stoke Therapeutics, Inc., 45 Wiggins Ave, Bedford, Massachusetts 01730 and our telephone number is (781) 430-8200. See the section of this prospectus entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” for information concerning how to obtain copies of materials that we file with the SEC.

Any statement contained in this prospectus, or in a document, all or a portion of which is incorporated by reference, shall be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any document incorporated by reference modifies or supersedes such statement. Any such statement so modified or superseded shall not, except as so modified or superseded, constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds to us from the sale of our securities under this prospectus. Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus for general corporate purposes, which may include funding research, clinical and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, increasing our working capital, reducing indebtedness as applicable, acquisitions or investments in businesses, products or technologies that are complementary to our own and capital expenditures. We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement our intended use for the net proceeds received from the sale of any securities. Pending the application of the net proceeds, we intend to invest the net proceeds in short-term or long-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities covered by this prospectus to one or more underwriters for public offering and sale by them, and may also sell the securities to investors directly or through agents. We will name any underwriter or agent involved in the offer and sale of securities in the applicable prospectus supplement. We have reserved the right to sell or exchange securities directly to investors on our own behalf in jurisdictions where we are authorized to do so. We may distribute the securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase the securities being offered by this prospectus. We may also designate agents to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time. We will name in a prospectus supplement any agent involved in the offer or sale of our securities. Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, an agent will be acting on a best efforts basis, and a dealer will purchase securities as a principal for resale at varying prices to be determined by the dealer.

If we utilize an underwriter in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, we will execute an underwriting agreement with the underwriter at the time of sale and we will provide the name of any underwriter in the prospectus supplement that the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we, or the purchasers of securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and those dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agent.

We will provide in the applicable prospectus supplement any compensation we pay to underwriters, dealers, or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and to reimburse them for certain expenses. We may grant underwriters who participate in the distribution of our securities under this prospectus an option to purchase additional securities to cover any over-allotments in connection with the distribution.

The securities we offer under this prospectus may or may not be listed through The Nasdaq Global Select Market or any other securities exchange. To facilitate the offering of securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include short sales of the securities, which involves the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than we sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their option to purchase additional securities. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.

 

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We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and they may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in these sale transactions will be an underwriter and will be identified in the applicable prospectus supplement. In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus. The financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.

We will file a prospectus supplement to describe the terms of any offering of our securities covered by this prospectus. The prospectus supplement will disclose:

 

   

the terms of the offer;

 

   

the names of any underwriters, including any managing underwriters, as well as any dealers or agents;

 

   

the purchase price of the securities from us;

 

   

the net proceeds to us from the sale of the securities;

 

   

any delayed delivery arrangements;

 

   

any over-allotment or other options under which underwriters, if any, may purchase additional securities from us;

 

   

any underwriting discounts, commissions or other items constituting underwriters’ compensation, and any commissions paid to agents;

 

   

in a subscription rights offering, whether we have engaged dealer-managers to facilitate the offering or subscription, including their name or names and compensation;

 

   

any public offering price; and

 

   

other facts material to the transaction.

We will bear all or substantially all of the costs, expenses and fees in connection with the registration of our securities under this prospectus. The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

General

Our authorized capital stock consists of 300,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, and 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share.

The following description summarizes the most important terms of our capital stock. Because it is only a summary, it does not contain all the information that may be important to you. For a complete description, you should refer to our restated certificate of incorporation, our restated bylaws, as amended, or restated bylaws, and our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement, which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, and to the applicable provisions of Delaware law.

As of July 8, 2020, there were 33,217,344 shares of our common stock outstanding, and no shares of preferred stock outstanding.

Common Stock

Dividend rights

Subject to preferences that may apply to any shares of preferred stock outstanding at the time, the holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends out of funds legally available if our board of directors, in its discretion, determines to issue dividends and then only at the times and in the amounts that our board of directors may determine. For more information about our dividend policy, see “Dividends” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

Voting rights

Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. We have not provided for cumulative voting for the election of directors in our restated certificate of incorporation, which means that holders of a majority of the shares of our common stock are able to elect all of our directors. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides for a classified board of directors, divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms. Only one class of directors is elected at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms.

No preemptive or similar rights

Our common stock is not entitled to preemptive rights, and is not subject to conversion, redemption or sinking fund provisions.

Right to receive liquidation distributions

Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, the assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders would be distributable ratably among the holders of our common stock and any participating preferred stock outstanding at that time, subject to prior satisfaction of all outstanding debt and liabilities and the preferential rights of and the payment of liquidation preferences, if any, on any outstanding shares of preferred stock.

Preferred Stock

Our board of directors is authorized, subject to limitations prescribed by Delaware law, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to

 

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be included in each series and to fix the designation, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each series and any of their qualifications, limitations or restrictions, in each case without further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors is also able to increase the number of shares of any series of preferred stock, but not above the total number of authorized shares of preferred stock, or decrease the number of shares of any series of preferred stock, but not below the number of shares of that series then outstanding, in each case without any further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of our common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company and might adversely affect the market price of our common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of our common stock. We have no current plan to issue any shares of preferred stock.

Registration rights

Certain of our common stockholders are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of such shares under the Securities Act, as described below. We refer to these shares collectively as registrable securities. These rights are provided under the terms of our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement, which is included as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

Form S-1 registration rights

Beginning 180 days after the completion of our initial public offering, the holders of at least a majority of the then-outstanding registrable securities may make a request to us for the registration under the Securities Act of registrable securities if the aggregate price to the public of the shares offered is at least $10.0 million. Within ten (10) days following such request, we are obligated to provide notice of such request to all stockholders, other than the initiating holders, to file a registration statement under the Securities Act covering all registrable securities that the initiating holders requested to be registered and any additional registrable securities requested to be included in such registration by any other holders. We are only required to file two registration statements that are declared effective upon exercise of these demand registration rights. We may postpone taking action with respect to such filing not more than once during any 12-month period for a total period of not more than 120 days, if after receiving a request for registration, we furnish to the holders requesting such registration a certificate signed by our Chief Executive Officer stating that, in the good faith judgment of our board of directors, it would be materially detrimental to us and our stockholders for such registration statement to be effected at such time.

The underwriters of any underwritten offering will have the right to limit the number of shares registered by these holders if they determine that marketing factors require limitation, in which case the number of shares to be registered will be apportioned, in proportion (as nearly as practicable), to the number of registrable securities owned by each holder or in such other proportion as shall mutually be agreed to by all such selling holders. However, the number of shares to be registered by these holders cannot be reduced unless all other securities are first entirely excluded from the underwriting.

Form S-3 registration rights

Any holder or group of holders of at least 20% of then-outstanding registrable securities can request that we register all or part of their shares on Form S-3 if we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3 and if the aggregate price to the public of the shares offered is at least $1.0 million. The stockholders may only require us to effect two registration statements on Form S-3 in a 12-month period. We may postpone taking action with respect to such filing not more than once during any 12-month period for a total period of not more than 120 days, if after receiving a request for registration, we furnish to the holders requesting such registration a

 

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certificate signed by our Chief Executive Officer stating that, in the good faith judgment of our board of directors, it would be materially detrimental to us and our stockholders for such registration statement to be effected at such time.

The underwriters of any underwritten offering will have the right to limit the number of shares registered by these holders if they determine that marketing factors require limitation, in which case the number of shares to be registered will be apportioned, in proportion (as nearly as practicable), to the number of registrable securities owned by each holder or in such other proportion as shall mutually be agreed to by all such selling Holders. However, the number of shares to be registered by these holders cannot be reduced unless all other securities are first entirely excluded from the underwriting.

Piggyback registration rights

If we register any of our securities for public sale, holders of then-outstanding registrable securities or their permitted transferees will have the right to include their registrable securities in the registration statement. However, this right does not apply to a registration relating to employee benefit plans, a registration relating to a corporate reorganization, a registration on a form that does not include substantially the same information as would be required to be included in a registration statement covering the sale of registrable securities or a registration in which the only common stock being registered is common stock issuable upon conversion of debt securities that are being registered.

The underwriters of any underwritten offering will have the right to limit the number of shares registered by these holders if they determine that marketing factors require limitation, in which case the number of shares to be registered will be apportioned to the selling holders, in proportion (as nearly as practicable), to the number of registrable securities owned by each selling holder or in such other proportion as shall mutually be agreed to by all such selling holders. However, the number of shares to be registered by these holders cannot be reduced (i) unless all other securities (other than securities to be sold by us) are first entirely excluded from the offering, (ii) below 25% of the total number of securities included in such offering, unless such offering is the initial public offering, in which case the selling holders may be excluded further if the underwriters make the determination for a limitation and no other stockholder’s securities are included in such offering.

Expenses of registration rights

We generally will pay all expenses, other than underwriting discounts and commissions.

Expiration of registration rights

The registration rights described above will expire, with respect to any particular holder of these rights, on the earlier of the fifth anniversary of our initial public offering or with respect to each holder, such time following this offering as all registrable securities of such holder may be sold within a three-month period pursuant to Rule 144.

Anti-Takeover Provisions

Certain provisions of Delaware General Corporation Law, or DGCL, our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws could have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another person from acquiring control of our company. These provisions, which are summarized below, may have the effect of discouraging takeover bids. They are also designed, in part, to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to negotiate first with our board of directors.

 

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Delaware Law

We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL regulating corporate takeovers. In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years following the date on which the person became an interested stockholder unless:

 

   

prior to the date of the transaction, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

   

the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder, (i) shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and (ii) shares owned by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

   

at or subsequent to the date of the transaction, the business combination is approved by the board of directors of the corporation and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66.67% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

Generally, a business combination includes a merger, asset or stock sale, or other transaction or series of transactions together resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. An interested stockholder is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns or, within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status, did own 15% or more of a corporation’s outstanding voting stock.

Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Restated Bylaw Provisions

Our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws include a number of provisions that could deter hostile takeovers or delay or prevent changes in control of our company, including the following:

 

   

Board of directors vacancies. Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws authorize only our board of directors to fill vacant directorships, including newly created seats. In addition, the number of directors constituting our board of directors is permitted to be set only by a resolution adopted by a majority vote of our entire board of directors. These provisions would prevent a stockholder from increasing the size of our board of directors and then gaining control of our board of directors by filling the resulting vacancies with its own nominees. This makes it more difficult to change the composition of our board of directors but promotes continuity of management.

 

   

Classified board. Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws provide that our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors, each with staggered three-year terms. A third party may be discouraged from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us as it is more difficult and time consuming for stockholders to replace a majority of the directors on a classified board of directors.

 

   

Stockholder action; special meetings of stockholders. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that our stockholders may not take action by written consent, but may only take action at annual or special meetings of our stockholders. As a result, a holder controlling a majority of our capital stock would not be able to amend our restated bylaws or remove directors without holding a meeting of our stockholders called in accordance with our restated bylaws. Further, our restated bylaws provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by a majority of our board of directors, the chairman of our board of directors, our Chief Executive Officer or our President, thus prohibiting a stockholder from calling a special meeting. These provisions might delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or for stockholders controlling a majority of our capital stock to take any action, including the removal of directors.

 

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Advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and director nominations. Our restated bylaws provide advance notice procedures for stockholders seeking to bring business before our annual meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at our annual meeting of stockholders. Our restated bylaws also specify certain requirements regarding the form and content of a stockholder’s notice. These provisions might preclude our stockholders from bringing matters before our annual meeting of stockholders or from making nominations for directors at our annual meeting of stockholders if the proper procedures are not followed. We expect that these provisions might also discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our company.

 

   

No cumulative voting. The DGCL provides that stockholders are not entitled to the right to cumulate votes in the election of directors unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws do not provide for cumulative voting.

 

   

Directors removed only for cause. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that stockholders may remove directors only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding common stock.

 

   

Amendment of charter provisions. Any amendment of the above expected provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation requires approval by holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding common stock.

 

   

Issuance of undesignated preferred stock. Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by the stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock with rights and preferences, including voting rights, designated from time to time by our board of directors. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock would enable our board of directors to render more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by merger, tender offer, proxy contest or other means.

 

   

Choice of forum. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the DGCL, our restated certificate of incorporation or our restated bylaws; or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. In addition, our restated bylaws also provide that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the federal district courts of the United States will be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act.

 

   

Board Observer Rights. Finally, our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement provides that for so long as any of Apple Tree Partners IV, L.P., RTW Master Fund or RTW Innovation Master Fund, Ltd., or any of their respective affiliates, holds any shares of our preferred stock or common stock issued upon conversion thereof, such investor or investors shall have the right to attend our board meetings in a nonvoting observer capacity.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

Nasdaq Global Select Market listing

Our common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “STOK.”

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

General

We will issue the debt securities offered by this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement under an indenture to be entered into between us and the trustee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of the debt securities will include those stated in the indenture and those made part of the indenture by reference to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as in effect on the date of the indenture. We have filed a copy of the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement in which this prospectus is included. The indenture will be subject to and governed by the terms of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

We may offer under this prospectus up to an aggregate principal amount of $400,000,000 in debt securities, or if debt securities are issued at a discount, or in a foreign currency, foreign currency units or composite currency, the principal amount as may be sold for an aggregate public offering price of up to $400,000,000. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will represent our direct, unsecured obligations and will rank equally with all of our other unsecured indebtedness.

We may issue the debt securities in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. We will describe the particular terms of each series of debt securities in a prospectus supplement relating to that series, which we will file with the SEC. The prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of debt securities being offered will specify the particular amounts, prices and terms of those debt securities. These terms may include:

 

   

the title of the series;

 

   

the aggregate principal amount, and, if a series, the total amount authorized and the total amount outstanding;

 

   

the issue price or prices, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

   

any limit on the aggregate principal amount;

 

   

the date or dates on which principal is payable;

 

   

the interest rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates;

 

   

the date or dates from which interest, if any, will be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable;

 

   

the place or places where principal and, if applicable, premium and interest, is payable;

 

   

the terms and conditions upon which we may, or the holders may require us to, redeem or repurchase the debt securities;

 

   

the denominations in which such debt securities may be issuable, if other than denominations of $1,000 or any integral multiple of that number;

 

   

whether the debt securities are to be issuable in the form of certificated securities (as described below) or global securities (as described below);

 

   

the portion of principal amount that will be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date if other than the principal amount of the debt securities;

 

   

the currency of denomination;

 

   

the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal and, if applicable, premium and interest, will be made;

 

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if payments of principal and, if applicable, premium or interest, on the debt securities are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than the currency of denomination, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

 

   

if amounts of principal and, if applicable, premium and interest may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index, then the manner in which such amounts will be determined;

 

   

the provisions, if any, relating to any collateral provided for such debt securities;

 

   

any addition to or change in the covenants and/or the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture;

 

   

any events of default, if not otherwise described below under “Events of Default”;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, for conversion into or exchange for shares of our common stock or preferred stock;

 

   

any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents; and

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the debt securities shall be subordinated in right of payment to our other indebtedness.

We may issue discount debt securities that provide for an amount less than the stated principal amount to be due and payable upon acceleration of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of the indenture. We may also issue debt securities in bearer form, with or without coupons. If we issue discount debt securities or debt securities in bearer form, we will describe material U.S. federal income tax considerations and other material special considerations which apply to these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may issue debt securities denominated in or payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units. If we do, we will describe the restrictions, elections, and general tax considerations relating to the debt securities and the foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Debt securities offered under this prospectus and any prospectus supplement will be subordinated in right of payment to certain of our outstanding senior indebtedness. In addition, we will seek the consent of the holders of any such senior indebtedness prior to issuing any debt securities under this prospectus to the extent required by the agreements evidencing such senior indebtedness.

Registrar and Paying Agent

The debt securities may be presented for registration of transfer or for exchange at the corporate trust office of the security registrar or at any other office or agency that we maintain for those purposes. In addition, the debt securities may be presented for payment of principal, interest and any premium at the office of the paying agent or at any office or agency that we maintain for those purposes.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

Debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for shares of our common stock. The terms and conditions of conversion or exchange will be stated in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms will include, among others, the following:

 

   

the conversion or exchange price;

 

   

the conversion or exchange period;

 

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provisions regarding the convertibility or exchangeability of the debt securities, including who may convert or exchange;

 

   

events requiring adjustment to the conversion or exchange price;

 

   

provisions affecting conversion or exchange in the event of our redemption of the debt securities; and

 

   

any anti-dilution provisions, if applicable.

Registered Global Securities

If we decide to issue debt securities in the form of one or more global securities, then we will register the global securities in the name of the depositary for the global securities or the nominee of the depositary, and the global securities will be delivered by the trustee to the depositary for credit to the accounts of the holders of beneficial interests in the debt securities.

The prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of the depositary arrangement for debt securities of a series that are issued in global form. None of us, the trustee, any payment agent or the security registrar will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in a global debt security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to these beneficial ownership interests.

No Protection in the Event of Change of Control

The indenture does not have any covenants or other provisions providing for a put or increased interest or otherwise that would afford holders of our debt securities additional protection in the event of a recapitalization transaction, a change of control or a highly leveraged transaction. If we offer any covenants or provisions of this type with respect to any debt securities covered by this prospectus, we will describe them in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Covenants

Unless otherwise indicated in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement, our debt securities will not have the benefit of any covenants that limit or restrict our business or operations, the pledging of our assets or the incurrence by us of indebtedness. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement any material covenants in respect of a series of debt securities.

Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets

The form of indenture provides that we will not consolidate with or merge into any other person or convey, transfer, sell or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any person, unless:

 

   

we are the surviving person of such merger or consolidation, or if we are not the surviving person, the person formed by the consolidation or into or with which we are merged or the person to which our properties and assets are conveyed, transferred, sold or leased, is a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the U.S., any state or the District of Columbia or a corporation or comparable legal entity organized under the laws of a foreign jurisdiction and has expressly assumed all of our obligations, including the payment of the principal of and, premium, if any, and interest on the debt securities and the performance of the other covenants under the indenture; and

 

   

immediately before and immediately after giving effect to the transaction on a pro forma basis, no event of default, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an event of default, has occurred and is continuing under the indenture.

 

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Events of Default

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the following events will be events of default under the indenture with respect to debt securities of any series:

 

   

we fail to pay any principal or premium, if any, when it becomes due;

 

   

we fail to pay any interest within 30 days after it becomes due;

 

   

we fail to observe or perform any other covenant in the debt securities or the indenture for 90 days after written notice specifying the failure from the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series; and

 

   

certain events involving bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of us or any of our significant subsidiaries.

The trustee may withhold notice to the holders of the debt securities of any series of any default, except in payment of principal of or premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities of a series, if the trustee considers it to be in the best interest of the holders of the debt securities of that series to do so.

If an event of default (other than an event of default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) occurs, and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may accelerate the maturity of the debt securities. If this happens, the entire principal amount, plus the premium, if any, of all the outstanding debt securities of the affected series plus accrued interest to the date of acceleration will be immediately due and payable. At any time after the acceleration, but before a judgment or decree based on such acceleration is obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of outstanding debt securities of such series may rescind and annul such acceleration if:

 

   

all events of default (other than nonpayment of accelerated principal, premium or interest) have been cured or waived;

 

   

all lawful interest on overdue interest and overdue principal has been paid; and

 

   

the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree.

In addition, if the acceleration occurs at any time when we have outstanding indebtedness that is senior to the debt securities, the payment of the principal amount of outstanding debt securities may be subordinated in right of payment to the prior payment of any amounts due under the senior indebtedness, in which case the holders of debt securities will be entitled to payment under the terms prescribed in the instruments evidencing the senior indebtedness and the indenture.

If an event of default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occurs, the principal, premium and interest amount with respect to all of the debt securities of any series will be due and payable immediately without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or the holders of the debt securities of that series.

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series will have the right to waive any existing default or compliance with any provision of the indenture or the debt securities of that series and to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, subject to certain limitations specified in the indenture.

No holder of any debt security of a series will have any right to institute any proceeding with respect to the indenture or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:

 

   

the holder gives to the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default;

 

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the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the affected series make a written request and offer reasonable indemnity to the trustee to institute a proceeding as trustee;

 

   

the trustee fails to institute a proceeding within 60 days after such request; and

 

   

the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the affected series do not give the trustee a direction inconsistent with such request during such 60-day period.

These limitations do not, however, apply to a suit instituted for payment on debt securities of any series on or after the due dates expressed in the debt securities.

We will periodically deliver certificates to the trustee regarding our compliance with our obligations under the indenture.

Modification and Waiver

From time to time, we and the trustee may, without the consent of holders of the debt securities of one or more series, amend the indenture or the debt securities of one or more series, or supplement the indenture, for certain specified purposes, including:

 

   

to provide that the surviving entity following a change of control permitted under the indenture will assume all of our obligations under the indenture and debt securities;

 

   

to provide for certificated debt securities in addition to uncertificated debt securities;

 

   

to comply with any requirements of the SEC under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939;

 

   

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture;

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, or make any other change that does not materially and adversely affect the rights of any holder; and

 

   

to appoint a successor trustee under the indenture with respect to one or more series.

From time to time we and the trustee may, with the consent of holders of at least a majority in principal amount of an outstanding series of debt securities, amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities series, or waive compliance in a particular instance by us with any provision of the indenture or the debt securities. We may not, however, without the consent of each holder affected by such action, modify or supplement the indenture or the debt securities or waive compliance with any provision of the indenture or the debt securities in order to:

 

   

reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement, or waiver to the indenture or such debt security;

 

   

reduce the rate of or change the time for payment of interest or reduce the amount of or postpone the date for payment of sinking fund or analogous obligations;

 

   

reduce the principal of or change the stated maturity of the debt securities;

 

   

make any debt security payable in money other than that stated in the debt security;

 

   

change the amount or time of any payment required or reduce the premium payable upon any redemption, or change the time before which no such redemption may be made;

 

   

waive a default in the payment of the principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities or a redemption payment;

 

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waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt securities or change any provision with respect to redemption of debt securities; or

 

   

take any other action otherwise prohibited by the indenture to be taken without the consent of each holder affected by the action.

Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances

The indenture permits us, at any time, to elect to discharge our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities by following certain procedures described in the indenture. These procedures will allow us either:

 

   

to defease and be discharged from any and all of our obligations with respect to any debt securities except for the following obligations (which discharge is referred to as “legal defeasance”):

 

  1.

to register the transfer or exchange of such debt securities;

 

  2.

to replace temporary or mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen debt securities;

 

  3.

to compensate and indemnify the trustee; or

 

  4.

to maintain an office or agency in respect of the debt securities and to hold monies for payment in trust; or

 

   

to be released from our obligations with respect to the debt securities under certain covenants contained in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be contained in the applicable supplemental indenture (which release is referred to as “covenant defeasance”).

In order to exercise either defeasance option, we must irrevocably deposit with the trustee or other qualifying trustee, in trust for that purpose:

 

   

money;

 

   

U.S. Government Obligations (as described below) or Foreign Government Obligations (as described below) that through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in accordance with their terms will provide money; or

 

   

a combination of money and/or U.S. Government Obligations and/or Foreign Government Obligations sufficient in the written opinion of a nationally-recognized firm of independent accountants to provide money;

that, in each case specified above, provides a sufficient amount to pay the principal of, premium, if any, and interest, if any, on the debt securities of the series, on the scheduled due dates or on a selected date of redemption in accordance with the terms of the indenture.

In addition, defeasance may be effected only if, among other things:

 

   

in the case of either legal or covenant defeasance, we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel, as specified in the indenture, stating that as a result of the defeasance neither the trust nor the trustee will be required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940;

 

   

in the case of legal defeasance, we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling to the effect that, or there has been a change in any applicable federal income tax law with the effect that (and the opinion shall confirm that), the holders of outstanding debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes solely as a result of such legal defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner, including as a result of prepayment, and at the same times as would have been the case if legal defeasance had not occurred;

 

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in the case of covenant defeasance, we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the outstanding debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of covenant defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if covenant defeasance had not occurred; and

 

   

certain other conditions described in the indenture are satisfied.

If we fail to comply with our remaining obligations under the indenture and applicable supplemental indenture after a covenant defeasance of the indenture and applicable supplemental indenture, and the debt securities are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any undefeased event of default, the amount of money and/or U.S. Government Obligations and/or Foreign Government Obligations on deposit with the trustee could be insufficient to pay amounts due under the debt securities of the affected series at the time of acceleration. We will, however, remain liable in respect of these payments.

The term “U.S. Government Obligations” as used in the above discussion means securities that are direct obligations of or non-callable obligations guaranteed by the United States of America for the payment of which obligation or guarantee the full faith and credit of the United States of America is pledged.

The term “Foreign Government Obligations” as used in the above discussion means, with respect to debt securities of any series that are denominated in a currency other than U.S. dollars, (1) direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or (2) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by or acting as an agent or instrumentality of such government the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by that government, which in either case under clauses (1) or (2), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer.

Regarding the Trustee

We will identify the trustee with respect to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the applicable debt securities. You should note that if the trustee becomes a creditor of ours, the indenture and the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 limit the rights of the trustee to obtain payment of claims in certain cases, or to realize on certain property received in respect of any such claim, as security or otherwise. The trustee and its affiliates may engage in, and will be permitted to continue to engage in, other transactions with us and our affiliates. If, however, the trustee acquires any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, it must eliminate such conflict or resign.

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of any series may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for exercising any remedy available to the trustee. If an event of default occurs and is continuing, the trustee, in the exercise of its rights and powers, must use the degree of care and skill of a prudent person in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to that provision, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture at the request of any of the holders of the debt securities, unless they have offered to the trustee reasonable indemnity or security.

No Individual Liability of Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers or Directors

Each indenture provides that no incorporator and no past, present or future stockholder, officer or director of our company or any successor corporation in those capacities will have any individual liability for any of our obligations, covenants or agreements under the debt securities or such indenture.

Governing Law

The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

General

We may issue warrants for the purchase of our debt securities, preferred stock, common stock, or any combination thereof. Warrants may be issued independently or together with our debt securities, preferred stock or common stock and may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as warrant agent. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants. The warrant agent will not have any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants. This summary of certain provisions of the warrants is not complete. For the terms of a particular series of warrants, you should refer to the prospectus supplement for that series of warrants and the warrant agreement for that particular series.

Debt Warrants

The prospectus supplement relating to a particular issue of warrants to purchase debt securities will describe the terms of the debt warrants, including the following:

 

   

the title of the debt warrants;

 

   

the offering price for the debt warrants, if any;

 

   

the aggregate number of the debt warrants;

 

   

the designation and terms of the debt securities, including any conversion rights, purchasable upon exercise of the debt warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the date from and after which the debt warrants and any debt securities issued with them will be separately transferable;

 

   

the principal amount of debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of a debt warrant and the exercise price for the warrants, which may be payable in cash, securities or other property;

 

   

the dates on which the right to exercise the debt warrants will commence and expire;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the debt warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

whether the debt warrants represented by the debt warrant certificates or debt securities that may be issued upon exercise of the debt warrants will be issued in registered or bearer form;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

   

if applicable, a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations;

 

   

the antidilution provisions of the debt warrants, if any;

 

   

the redemption or call provisions, if any, applicable to the debt warrants;

 

   

any provisions with respect to the holder’s right to require us to repurchase the debt warrants upon a change in control or similar event; and

 

   

any additional terms of the debt warrants, including procedures and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise, and settlement of the debt warrants.

Debt warrant certificates will be exchangeable for new debt warrant certificates of different denominations. Debt warrants may be exercised at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in

 

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the prospectus supplement. Prior to the exercise of their debt warrants, holders of debt warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the debt securities purchasable upon exercise and will not be entitled to payment of principal or any premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities purchasable upon exercise.

Equity Warrants

The prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of warrants to purchase our common stock or preferred stock will describe the terms of the warrants, including the following:

 

   

the title of the warrants;

 

   

the offering price for the warrants, if any;

 

   

the aggregate number of warrants;

 

   

the designation and terms of the common stock or preferred stock that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each security;

 

   

if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and any securities issued with the warrants will be separately transferable;

 

   

the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock that may be purchased upon exercise of a warrant and the exercise price for the warrants;

 

   

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants shall commence and expire;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

   

if applicable, a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations;

 

   

the antidilution provisions of the warrants, if any;

 

   

the redemption or call provisions, if any, applicable to the warrants;

 

   

any provisions with respect to a holder’s right to require us to repurchase the warrants upon a change in control or similar event; and

 

   

any additional terms of the warrants, including procedures and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise and settlement of the warrants.

Holders of equity warrants will not be entitled to:

 

   

vote, consent, or receive dividends;

 

   

receive notice as stockholders with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter; or

 

   

exercise any rights as stockholders.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS

We may issue subscription rights to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. These subscription rights may be offered independently or together with any other security offered hereby and may or may not be transferable by the stockholder receiving the subscription rights in such offering. In connection with any offering of subscription rights, we may enter into a standby arrangement with one or more underwriters or other purchasers pursuant to which the underwriters or other purchasers may be required to purchase any securities remaining unsubscribed for after such offering.

The prospectus supplement relating to any subscription rights we offer, if any, will, to the extent applicable, include specific terms relating to the offering, including some or all of the following:

 

   

the price, if any, for the subscription rights;

 

   

the exercise price payable for our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon the exercise of the subscription rights;

 

   

the number of subscription rights to be issued to each stockholder;

 

   

the number and terms of our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities which may be purchased per each subscription right;

 

   

the extent to which the subscription rights are transferable;

 

   

any other terms of the subscription rights, including the terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the subscription rights;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the subscription rights shall commence, and the date on which the subscription rights shall expire;

 

   

the extent to which the subscription rights may include an over-subscription privilege with respect to unsubscribed securities or an over-allotment privilege to the extent the securities are fully subscribed; and

 

   

if applicable, the material terms of any standby underwriting or purchase arrangement which may be entered into by us in connection with the offering of subscription rights.

The description in the applicable prospectus supplement of any subscription rights we offer will not necessarily be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable subscription rights certificate, which will be filed with the SEC if we offer subscription rights. We urge you to read the applicable subscription rights certificate and any applicable prospectus supplement in their entirety.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units consisting of some or all of the securities described above, in any combination, including common stock, preferred stock, warrants and/or debt securities. The terms of these units will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The description of the terms of these units in the applicable prospectus supplement will not be complete. You should refer to the applicable form of unit and unit agreement for complete information with respect to these units.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Fenwick & West LLP, San Francisco, California, will issue an opinion about certain legal matters with respect to the securities. Any underwriters or agents will be advised about legal matters relating to any offering by their own counsel.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Stoke Therapeutics, Inc. and its subsidiary as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, and for each of the years in the two-year period ended December 31, 2019, have been incorporated by reference herein in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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LOGO

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Subscription Rights

Units

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

            , 2020

 

 

 


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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to completion, dated July 10, 2020

PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

Up to $150,000,000

Common Stock

 

 

We have entered into a Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement, or the sales agreement, with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., or Cantor, and Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated, or Stifel, relating to shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $150,000,000 from time to time through Cantor and Stifel acting as our agents.

Our common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “STOK.” The last reported sales price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on July 8, 2020 was $23.40 per share.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Cantor and Stifel are not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of securities, but will act as a sales agents using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with their normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between Cantor, Stifel and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

The compensation to Cantor and Stifel for sales of common stock sold pursuant to the sales agreement will be up to 3.0% of the aggregate gross proceeds of any shares of common stock sold under the sales agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, each of Cantor and Stifel will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of each of Cantor and Stifel will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to each of Cantor and Stifel with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

 

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties referenced under the heading “Risk Factors” on page S-5 of this prospectus as well as those contained in any accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus or prospectus supplement we prepare or authorize in connection with this offering, and in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus or the accompanying prospectus.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

LOGO             LOGO

The date of this prospectus is                , 2020.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     S-1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     S-2  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     S-3  

THE OFFERING

     S-4  

RISK FACTORS

     S-5  

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     S-7  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-8  

DILUTION

     S-9  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     S-10  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     S-15  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-16  

EXPERTS

     S-16  

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $400,000,000. Under this prospectus, we may from time to time sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $150,000,000, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering. The $150,000,000 of shares of our common stock that may be sold under this prospectus are included in the $400,000,000 of securities that may be sold under the registration statement.

This prospectus describes the terms of this offering of common stock and also adds to and updates information contained in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference into this prospectus that was filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

We have not, and Cantor and Stifel have not, authorized anyone to provide you with any information other than that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement or related free writing prospectus to which we have referred you. Neither we nor Cantor or Stifel take any responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information others may give you. We are not, and Cantor and Stifel are not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted or in which the person making that offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the accompanying base prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus, the accompanying base prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision.

When we refer to “Stoke,” “Stoke Therapeutics,” “we,” “our,” “us,” the “Registrant,” the “Company” and “our company” in this prospectus, we mean Stoke Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation, unless otherwise specified.

The mark “Stoke Therapeutics” is our registered trademark. The Stoke logo and all product names are our common law trademarks. All other service marks, trademarks and trade names appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and tradenames referred to in this prospectus appear without the ® and symbols, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights, or the right of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and tradenames.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Available Information

We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov.

Our web site address is http://www.stoketherapeutics.com. The information on our web site, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and does not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided below. Documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement through the SEC’s website, as provided above, or at our principal executive offices, 45 Wiggins Ave, Bedford, Massachusetts 01730, during normal business hours.

Incorporation by Reference

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those other documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. A Current Report (or portion thereof) furnished, but not filed, on Form 8-K shall not be incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings we make with the SEC under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the termination of any offering of securities made by this prospectus:

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 23, 2020;

 

   

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on May 15, 2020;

 

   

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on April 15, 2020, June 4, 2020 and July 9, 2020; and

 

   

The description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on June 11, 2019 under Section  12(b) of the Exchange Act, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description, including Exhibit 4.3 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 23, 2020.

All reports and other documents we subsequently file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the termination of this offering, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC, will also be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and deemed to be part of this prospectus from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.

We will furnish without charge to you, on written or oral request, a copy of any or all of such documents that has been incorporated herein by reference (other than exhibits to such documents unless such exhibits are specifically incorporated by reference into the documents that this prospectus incorporates). Written or oral requests for copies should be directed to Stoke Therapeutics, Inc., 45 Wiggins Ave, Bedford, Massachusetts 01730 and our telephone number is (781) 430-8200.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

Our Company

We are a biotechnology company that is pioneering a new way to treat the underlying causes of severe genetic diseases by precisely upregulating protein expression. We are developing novel antisense oligonucleotide, or ASO, medicines that target ribonucleic acid, or RNA, and modulate precursor-messenger RNA, or pre-mRNA, splicing to upregulate protein expression where needed and with appropriate specificity to near normal levels. We aim to develop the first precision medicine platform to target the underlying cause of a broad spectrum of genetic diseases in which the patient has one healthy copy of a gene and one mutated copy that fails to produce a protein essential to health. We utilize our proprietary technology platform, Targeted Augmentation of Nuclear Gene Output, or TANGO, to design ASOs to upregulate the expression of protein by individual genes in a patient. Our approach is designed to allow us to deliver in a highly precise, durable and controlled manner disease-modifying therapies to a wide range of relevant tissues, including the central nervous system, or CNS, eye, kidney and liver.

We designed our lead product candidate, STK-001, to treat Dravet syndrome, a severe and progressive genetic epilepsy. With a well-defined patient population based on routine genetic testing and learnings from drugs approved for the treatment of Dravet syndrome to inform the clinical and regulatory pathways for STK-001, we anticipate an efficient clinical program for STK-001.

We submitted an investigational new drug application, or IND, for STK-001 to U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, in late 2019. In the first quarter of 2020, we received communication from the FDA confirming that we may proceed with clinical dosing in the planned Phase 1/2a clinical trial called Monarch. The single ascending dose portion of this trial is in two parts, A and B, and is designed to evaluate STK-001 in children and adolescents ages 2 to 18 years of age with Dravet syndrome. Part A allows dosing of two cohorts. We are currently preparing to enroll and begin dosing patients in Part A of the study in the second half of 2020.

Part B of the study will evaluate the higher doses of STK-001. The FDA has placed a partial clinical hold for the doses planned in Part B of the study. The partial clinical hold was not due to any identified manufacturing or safety issue, but rather was because additional safety information is needed from preclinical testing to determine the safety profile of doses higher than the current no observed adverse effect level or NOAEL. The NOAEL was determined using data from a pivotal non-human primate study that evaluated intrathecal delivery of single dose levels of STK-001. The highest dose administered in this study was equivalent to a human dose that is higher than what we plan to administer in Part B of our Phase 1/2a clinical study and did not demonstrate effects that were considered adverse. It is the FDA’s position that in order to support administration of STK-001 doses above those planned in Part A, additional nonclinical data to identify any potential safety issues of STK-001 at higher doses will need to be provided. We have completed a single-dose toxicology study to more fully characterize the safety profile at higher doses. We are in the process of preparing our complete response to the FDA in order to facilitate the removal of the partial clinical hold and proceed to Part B of the study. Upon FDA clearance, we will plan to proceed with the higher dosing cohorts planned in Part B of the study. We still anticipate preliminary data from the study in 2021.

We intend to nominate a second candidate for preclinical development in the second half of 2020.

Company Information

We were founded in June 2014 and were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware. Our principal executive offices are located at 45 Wiggins Ave, Bedford, Massachusetts 01730, and our telephone number is (781) 430-8200. Our website address is www.stoketherapeutics.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of, and is not incorporated by reference into, this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.



 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by us

   Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $150,000,000.

Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering

   Up to 39,377,606 shares (as more fully described in the notes following this table), assuming sales of 6,410,256 shares of our common stock in this offering at an offering price of $23.40 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common shares on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on July 8, 2020. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.

Manner of offering

   “At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through our sales agents, Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. and Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated. See “Plan of Distribution.”

Use of proceeds

   We currently intend to use the net proceeds of this offering primarily for general corporate purposes, which may include funding research, clinical and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, working capital and capital expenditures. See “Use of Proceeds.”

Risk factors

   Investing in our common stock involves significant risks. See the disclosure under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and under similar headings in other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

The Nasdaq Global Select Market symbol

  

“STOK”

The number of shares of our common stock shown above to be outstanding after this offering is based on 32,967,350 shares of our common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2020, and excludes:

 

   

4,992,251 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of options outstanding as of March 31, 2020 with a weighted average exercise price of $6.78 per share;

 

   

114,990 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of options outstanding that were granted after March 31, 2020 with a weighted average exercise price of $26.12 per share pursuant to our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan; and

 

   

2,954,071 shares of common stock reserved and available for future issuance as of March 31, 2020, under our equity incentives plans, consisting of (1) 2,639,071 shares of common stock reserved and available for issuance under our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan as of March 31, 2020 (which number is prior to the options granted after March 31, 2020 in the preceding bullet), and (2) 315,000 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under our 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan as of March 31, 2020.



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the accompanying base prospectus involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors described below, in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020, incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any amendment or update thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, including in our Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

Risks Relating to this Offering

If you purchase shares of our common stock sold in this offering, you may experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of your shares. In addition, we may issue additional equity or convertible debt securities in the future, which may result in additional dilution to you.

The price per share of our common stock being offered may be higher than the net tangible book value per share of our outstanding common stock prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 6,410,256 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $23.40 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on July 8, 2020, for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $150.0 million, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, new investors in this offering will incur immediate dilution of $14.25 per share. For a more detailed discussion of the foregoing, see the section entitled “Dilution” below. To the extent outstanding stock options or warrants are exercised, there will be further dilution to new investors. In addition, to the extent we need to raise additional capital in the future and we issue additional shares of common stock or securities convertible or exchangeable for our common stock, our then existing stockholders may experience dilution and the new securities may have rights senior to those of our common stock offered in this offering.

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering, including for any of the purposes described in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds,” and you will not have the opportunity as part of your investment decision to assess whether the net proceeds are being used appropriately. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of the net proceeds from this offering, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. Our management might not apply our net proceeds in ways that ultimately increase the value of your investment. We expect to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund research, clinical and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business. Pending their use, we plan to invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term or long-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders. If we do not invest or apply the net proceeds from this offering in ways that enhance stockholder value, we may fail to achieve expected financial results, which could cause our stock price to decline.

The actual number of shares we will issue under the sales agreement, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.

Subject to certain limitations in the sales agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a placement notice to Cantor or Stifel at any time throughout the term of the sales agreement. The number of shares that are sold by Cantor or Stifel after delivering a placement notice will fluctuate based on the market price of the common shares during the sales period and limits we set with Cantor and Stifel. Because the price per share of each share sold will fluctuate based on the market price of our common stock during the sales period, it is not possible at this stage to predict the number of shares that will be ultimately issued.

 

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The common stock offered hereby will be sold in “at the market offerings”, and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.

Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares sold, and there is no minimum or maximum sales price. Investors may experience a decline in the value of their shares as a result of share sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and documents incorporated herein by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks and uncertainties. We caution readers that any forward-looking statement is not a guarantee of future performance and that actual results could differ materially from those contained in the forward-looking statement. These statements are based on current expectations of future events.

Such statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding expectations and intentions, costs and expenses, outcome of contingencies, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, objectives of management, debt financing, our future results of operations and financial position, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, business strategies, market size, potential growth opportunities, prospective products, research and development costs, and the timing and likelihood of success, the ability to develop and obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize STK-001 and future product candidates, timing and results of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, expectations about timing and execution of anticipated milestones, including enrollment in Part A and Part B of our Phase 1/2a Monarch clinical trial in Dravet syndrome and timing of the results thereof, the ability of TANGO to design medicines to increase protein production, the intention to nominate a second candidate for preclinical development and the timing thereof, and other statements that are not historical facts. You can find many of these statements by looking for words like “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “may,” “might,” “should,” “will,” “could,” “plan,” “intend,” “project,” “seek” or similar expressions in this prospectus, in documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any free writing prospectus. We intend that such forward-looking statements be subject to the safe harbors created thereby.

These forward-looking statements are based on the current beliefs and expectations of our management and are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. If underlying assumptions prove inaccurate or unknown risks or uncertainties materialize, actual results may differ materially from current expectations and projections. Factors that might cause such a difference include those discussed in Part II, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020, as well as those discussed in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any free writing prospectus. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this prospectus or, in the case of documents referred to or incorporated by reference, the date of those documents.

All subsequent written or oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. We do not undertake any obligation to release publicly any revisions to these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as may be required under applicable U.S. securities law. If we do update one or more forward-looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $150,000,000 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. There can be no assurance that we will sell any shares under or fully utilize the sales agreement with Cantor and Stifel as a source of financing.

We currently intend to use any net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus primarily to fund research, clinical and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes. Additionally, we may use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to expand our current business by in-licensing or acquiring, as the case may be, commercial products, product candidates, technologies, compounds, other assets or complementary businesses, using cash or shares of our common stock. However, we have no current commitments or obligations to do so.

The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors, including the progress of our clinical trials and other development efforts and other factors described under “Risk Factors” in this prospectus, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, as well as the amount of cash used in our operations. We may find it necessary or advisable to use the net proceeds for other purposes, and we will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds. Pending the uses described above, we plan to invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term or long-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the price per share you pay in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering. Our net tangible book value of our common stock as of March 31, 2020 was approximately $214.3 million, or approximately $6.50 per share of common stock based upon 32,967,350 shares outstanding as of March 31, 2020. Net tangible book value per share is equal to our total tangible assets, less our total liabilities, divided by the total number of shares outstanding as of March 31, 2020.

After giving effect to the sale of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $150.0 million at an assumed offering price of $23.40 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on July 8, 2020, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2020 would have been $360.3 million, or $9.15 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $2.65 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $14.25 per share to new investors in this offering.

The following table illustrates this calculation on a per share basis. The as-adjusted information is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual price to the public, the actual number of shares sold and other terms of the offering determined at the time shares of our common stock are sold pursuant to this prospectus. The as-adjusted information assumes that all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $150.0 million is sold at the assumed offering price of $23.40 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on July 8, 2020. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices.

 

Assumed public offering price per share

      $ 23.40  

Net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2020

   $ 6.50     

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to the offering

     2.65     
  

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to the offering

        9.15  
     

 

 

 

Dilution per share to new investors participating in the offering

      $ 14.25  
     

 

 

 

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering is based on 32,967,350 shares of our common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2020. The number of shares outstanding as of March 31, 2020 excludes:

 

   

4,992,251 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of options outstanding as of March 31, 2020 with a weighted average exercise price of $6.78 per share;

 

   

114,990 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of options outstanding that were granted after March 31, 2020 with a weighted average exercise price of $26.12 per share pursuant to our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan; and

 

   

2,954,071 shares of common stock reserved and available for future issuance as of March 31, 2020, under our equity incentives plans, consisting of (1) 2,639,071 shares of common stock reserved and available for issuance under our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan as of March 31, 2020 (which number is prior to the options granted after March 31, 2020 in the preceding bullet), and (2) 315,000 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under our 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan as of March 31, 2020.

The foregoing table does not give effect to the exercise of any outstanding options. To the extent options are exercised there may be further dilution to new investors.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

General

Our authorized capital stock consists of 300,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, and 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share.

The following description summarizes the most important terms of our capital stock. Because it is only a summary, it does not contain all the information that may be important to you. For a complete description, you should refer to our restated certificate of incorporation, our restated bylaws, as amended, or restated bylaws, and our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement, which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, and to the applicable provisions of Delaware law.

As of July 8, 2020, there were 33,217,344 shares of our common stock outstanding, and no shares of preferred stock outstanding.

Common Stock

Dividend rights

Subject to preferences that may apply to any shares of preferred stock outstanding at the time, the holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends out of funds legally available if our board of directors, in its discretion, determines to issue dividends and then only at the times and in the amounts that our board of directors may determine. For more information about our dividend policy, see “Dividends” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

Voting rights

Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. We have not provided for cumulative voting for the election of directors in our restated certificate of incorporation, which means that holders of a majority of the shares of our common stock are able to elect all of our directors. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides for a classified board of directors, divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms. Only one class of directors is elected at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms.

No preemptive or similar rights

Our common stock is not entitled to preemptive rights, and is not subject to conversion, redemption or sinking fund provisions.

Right to receive liquidation distributions

Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, the assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders would be distributable ratably among the holders of our common stock and any participating preferred stock outstanding at that time, subject to prior satisfaction of all outstanding debt and liabilities and the preferential rights of and the payment of liquidation preferences, if any, on any outstanding shares of preferred stock.

Preferred Stock

Our board of directors is authorized, subject to limitations prescribed by Delaware law, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each series and to fix the designation, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each series

 

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and any of their qualifications, limitations or restrictions, in each case without further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors is also able to increase the number of shares of any series of preferred stock, but not above the total number of authorized shares of preferred stock, or decrease the number of shares of any series of preferred stock, but not below the number of shares of that series then outstanding, in each case without any further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of our common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company and might adversely affect the market price of our common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of our common stock. We have no current plan to issue any shares of preferred stock.

Registration rights

Certain of our common stockholders are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of such shares under the Securities Act, as described below. We refer to these shares collectively as registrable securities. These rights are provided under the terms of our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement, which is included as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

Form S-1 registration rights

Beginning 180 days after the completion of our initial public offering, the holders of at least a majority of the then-outstanding registrable securities may make a request to us for the registration under the Securities Act of registrable securities if the aggregate price to the public of the shares offered is at least $10.0 million. Within ten (10) days following such request, we are obligated to provide notice of such request to all stockholders, other than the initiating holders, to file a registration statement under the Securities Act covering all registrable securities that the initiating holders requested to be registered and any additional registrable securities requested to be included in such registration by any other holders. We are only required to file two registration statements that are declared effective upon exercise of these demand registration rights. We may postpone taking action with respect to such filing not more than once during any 12-month period for a total period of not more than 120 days, if after receiving a request for registration, we furnish to the holders requesting such registration a certificate signed by our Chief Executive Officer stating that, in the good faith judgment of our board of directors, it would be materially detrimental to us and our stockholders for such registration statement to be effected at such time.

The underwriters of any underwritten offering will have the right to limit the number of shares registered by these holders if they determine that marketing factors require limitation, in which case the number of shares to be registered will be apportioned, in proportion (as nearly as practicable), to the number of registrable securities owned by each holder or in such other proportion as shall mutually be agreed to by all such selling holders. However, the number of shares to be registered by these holders cannot be reduced unless all other securities are first entirely excluded from the underwriting.

Form S-3 registration rights

Any holder or group of holders of at least 20% of then-outstanding registrable securities can request that we register all or part of their shares on Form S-3 if we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3 and if the aggregate price to the public of the shares offered is at least $1.0 million. The stockholders may only require us to effect two registration statements on Form S-3 in a 12-month period. We may postpone taking action with respect to such filing not more than once during any 12-month period for a total period of not more than 120 days, if after receiving a request for registration, we furnish to the holders requesting such registration a certificate signed by our Chief Executive Officer stating that, in the good faith judgment of our board of directors, it would be materially detrimental to us and our stockholders for such registration statement to be effected at such time.

 

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The underwriters of any underwritten offering will have the right to limit the number of shares registered by these holders if they determine that marketing factors require limitation, in which case the number of shares to be registered will be apportioned, in proportion (as nearly as practicable), to the number of registrable securities owned by each holder or in such other proportion as shall mutually be agreed to by all such selling Holders. However, the number of shares to be registered by these holders cannot be reduced unless all other securities are first entirely excluded from the underwriting.

Piggyback registration rights

If we register any of our securities for public sale, holders of then-outstanding registrable securities or their permitted transferees will have the right to include their registrable securities in the registration statement. However, this right does not apply to a registration relating to employee benefit plans, a registration relating to a corporate reorganization, a registration on a form that does not include substantially the same information as would be required to be included in a registration statement covering the sale of registrable securities or a registration in which the only common stock being registered is common stock issuable upon conversion of debt securities that are being registered.

The underwriters of any underwritten offering will have the right to limit the number of shares registered by these holders if they determine that marketing factors require limitation, in which case the number of shares to be registered will be apportioned to the selling holders, in proportion (as nearly as practicable), to the number of registrable securities owned by each selling holder or in such other proportion as shall mutually be agreed to by all such selling holders. However, the number of shares to be registered by these holders cannot be reduced (i) unless all other securities (other than securities to be sold by us) are first entirely excluded from the offering, (ii) below 25% of the total number of securities included in such offering, unless such offering is the initial public offering, in which case the selling holders may be excluded further if the underwriters make the determination for a limitation and no other stockholder’s securities are included in such offering.

Expenses of registration rights

We generally will pay all expenses, other than underwriting discounts and commissions.

Expiration of registration rights

The registration rights described above will expire, with respect to any particular holder of these rights, on the earlier of the fifth anniversary of our initial public offering or with respect to each holder, such time following this offering as all registrable securities of such holder may be sold within a three-month period pursuant to Rule 144.

Anti-Takeover Provisions

Certain provisions of Delaware General Corporation Law, or DGCL, our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws could have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another person from acquiring control of our company. These provisions, which are summarized below, may have the effect of discouraging takeover bids. They are also designed, in part, to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to negotiate first with our board of directors.

Delaware Law

We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL regulating corporate takeovers. In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years following the date on which the person became an interested stockholder unless:

 

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prior to the date of the transaction, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

   

the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder, (i) shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and (ii) shares owned by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

   

at or subsequent to the date of the transaction, the business combination is approved by the board of directors of the corporation and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66.67% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

Generally, a business combination includes a merger, asset or stock sale, or other transaction or series of transactions together resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. An interested stockholder is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns or, within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status, did own 15% or more of a corporation’s outstanding voting stock.

Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Restated Bylaw Provisions

Our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws include a number of provisions that could deter hostile takeovers or delay or prevent changes in control of our company, including the following:

 

   

Board of directors vacancies. Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws authorize only our board of directors to fill vacant directorships, including newly created seats. In addition, the number of directors constituting our board of directors is permitted to be set only by a resolution adopted by a majority vote of our entire board of directors. These provisions would prevent a stockholder from increasing the size of our board of directors and then gaining control of our board of directors by filling the resulting vacancies with its own nominees. This makes it more difficult to change the composition of our board of directors but promotes continuity of management.

 

   

Classified board. Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws provide that our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors, each with staggered three-year terms. A third party may be discouraged from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us as it is more difficult and time consuming for stockholders to replace a majority of the directors on a classified board of directors.

 

   

Stockholder action; special meetings of stockholders. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that our stockholders may not take action by written consent, but may only take action at annual or special meetings of our stockholders. As a result, a holder controlling a majority of our capital stock would not be able to amend our restated bylaws or remove directors without holding a meeting of our stockholders called in accordance with our restated bylaws. Further, our restated bylaws provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by a majority of our board of directors, the chairman of our board of directors, our Chief Executive Officer or our President, thus prohibiting a stockholder from calling a special meeting. These provisions might delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or for stockholders controlling a majority of our capital stock to take any action, including the removal of directors.

 

   

Advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and director nominations. Our restated bylaws provide advance notice procedures for stockholders seeking to bring business before our annual meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at our annual meeting of stockholders. Our restated bylaws also specify certain requirements regarding the form and content of a

 

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stockholder’s notice. These provisions might preclude our stockholders from bringing matters before our annual meeting of stockholders or from making nominations for directors at our annual meeting of stockholders if the proper procedures are not followed. We expect that these provisions might also discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our company.

 

   

No cumulative voting. The DGCL provides that stockholders are not entitled to the right to cumulate votes in the election of directors unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws do not provide for cumulative voting.

 

   

Directors removed only for cause. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that stockholders may remove directors only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding common stock.

 

   

Amendment of charter provisions. Any amendment of the above expected provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation requires approval by holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding common stock.

 

   

Issuance of undesignated preferred stock. Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by the stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock with rights and preferences, including voting rights, designated from time to time by our board of directors. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock would enable our board of directors to render more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by merger, tender offer, proxy contest or other means.

 

   

Choice of forum. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the DGCL, our restated certificate of incorporation or our restated bylaws; or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. In addition, our restated bylaws also provide that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the federal district courts of the United States will be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act.

 

   

Board Observer Rights. Finally, our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement provides that for so long as any of Apple Tree Partners IV, L.P., RTW Master Fund or RTW Innovation Master Fund, Ltd., or any of their respective affiliates, holds any shares of our preferred stock or common stock issued upon conversion thereof, such investor or investors shall have the right to attend our board meetings in a nonvoting observer capacity.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

Nasdaq Global Select Market listing

Our common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “STOK.”

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into a Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement, or sales agreement, with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., and Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated, collectively referred to as the “Managers” and each individually a “Manager”, under which from time to time we may issue and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $150.0 million through either Manager acting as agent. Sales of the shares of common stock, if any, may be made on The Nasdaq Global Select Market at market prices and such other sales as agreed upon by us and the Managers. The sales agreement has been filed as an exhibit to our registration statement on Form S-3 of which this prospectus forms a part.

Upon delivery of a placement notice to a Manager and subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, the Manager may offer and sell shares of our common stock by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. We may instruct the Managers not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us from time to time. We or the Managers may suspend or terminate the offering of our common stock upon notice and subject to other conditions.

We will pay the Managers commissions, in cash, for their services in acting as sales agents in the sale of our common stock. The Managers will be entitled to a commission of up to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold under the sales agreement. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We have also agreed to reimburse a portion of the Managers’ expenses, including legal fees, in connection with this offering up to a maximum of $50,000. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding commissions and expense reimbursement payable to the Managers under the terms of the sales agreement, will be approximately $0.3 million.

Settlement for sales of shares of our common stock will occur on the second trading day following the date on which any sales are made (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading), or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and the Managers in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement. Sales of our common stock as contemplated in this prospectus will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and the Managers may agree upon.

The Managers will act as our sales agents and use commercially reasonable efforts, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, each Manager will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of the Managers will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the Managers against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

The offering of shares of our common stock pursuant to the sales agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (1) the sale of all shares of our common stock subject to the sales agreement, or (2) termination of the sales agreement as permitted therein. We may terminate the sales agreement at any time upon one day’s prior notice. The Managers may terminate the sales agreement at any time upon ten days’ prior notice.

The Managers and each of their respective affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking, commercial banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees. To the extent required by Regulation M, the Managers will not engage in any market making activities involving our common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus.

This prospectus in electronic format may be made available on a website maintained by the Managers and the Managers may distribute this prospectus electronically.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Fenwick & West LLP, San Francisco, California, will pass upon certain legal matters relating to the issuance and sale of the securities offered hereby on behalf of Stoke Therapeutics, Inc. Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. and Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated are being represented in connection with this offering by Goodwin Procter LLP, New York, New York.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Stoke Therapeutics, Inc. and its subsidiary as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, and for each of the years in the two-year period ended December 31, 2019, have been incorporated by reference herein in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

S-16


Table of Contents

 

 

 

LOGO

Up to $150,000,000

Common Stock

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

LOGO             LOGO

, 2020

 

 

 


Table of Contents

PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14.

Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

The following table sets forth estimated expenses in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered:

 

SEC registration fee

   $ 51,920  

FINRA filing fee

     60,500  

Printing and engraving*

     *  

Legal fees and expenses*

     *  

Accounting fees and expenses*

     *  

Transfer agent and registrar fees and expenses*

     *  

Miscellaneous expenses*

     *  
  

 

 

 

Total*

   $ *  
  

 

 

 

 

*

These fees are calculated based on the type of securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly, cannot be estimated at this time.

 

Item 15.

Indemnification of Officers and Directors

Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law authorizes a court to award, or a corporation’s board of directors to grant, indemnity to directors and officers under certain circumstances and subject to certain limitations. The terms of Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law are sufficiently broad to permit indemnification under certain circumstances for liabilities, including reimbursement of expenses incurred, arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act.

As permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, the Registrant’s restated certificate of incorporation contains a provision that eliminates, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the personal liability of a directors for monetary damages resulting from breach of his or her fiduciary duties as a director, except for liability:

 

   

for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the Registrant or its stockholders;

 

   

for acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

   

under Section 174 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (regarding unlawful dividends, stock purchases or redemptions); or

 

   

for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

As permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, the Registrant’s restated bylaws provide that:

 

   

the Registrant is required to indemnify its directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, subject to certain very limited exceptions;

 

   

the Registrant may indemnify its other employees and agents as set forth in the Delaware General Corporation Law;

 

   

the Registrant is required to advance expenses, as incurred, to its directors and officers in connection with a legal proceeding to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, subject to certain very limited exceptions; and

 

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the rights conferred in the restated bylaws are not exclusive.

The Registrant has entered, and intends to continue to enter, into indemnification agreements with each of its directors and executive officers to provide these directors and executive officers additional contractual assurances regarding the scope of the indemnification set forth in the Registrant’s restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws and to provide additional procedural protections. At present, there is no pending litigation or proceeding involving a director or executive officer of the Registrant for which indemnification is sought. The indemnification provisions in the Registrant’s restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws and the indemnification agreements entered into or to be entered into between the Registrant and each of its directors and executive officers may be sufficiently broad to permit indemnification of the Registrant’s directors and executive officers for liabilities arising under the Securities Act.

The Registrant currently carries liability insurance for its directors and officers.

 

Item 16.

Exhibits

The exhibits listed below are filed (except where otherwise indicated) as part of this Registration Statement.

 

          Incorporated by Reference  
Exhibit
Number
  

Exhibit Description

   Form      File No.      Exhibit      Filing Date      Filed
Herewith
 
1.1*   

Form of Underwriting Agreement

              
1.2    Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement, dated July 10, 2020, by and between the Registrant, Cantor Fitzgerald  & Co. and Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated.                  X  
3.1   

Restated Certificate of Incorporation

     10-Q        001-38938        3.1        8/14/2019     
3.2   

Restated Bylaws, as amended

                 X  
4.1   

Form of Common Stock Certificate

     S-1        333-231700        4.1        6/7/2019     
4.2    Amended and Restated Investors’ Rights Agreement, dated October  22, 2018, by and among the Registrant and certain of its stockholders      S-1        333-231700        4.2        5/23/2019     
4.3   

Form of Debt Security

                 X  
4.4   

Form of Indenture

                 X  
4.5*   

Form of Warrant

              
4.6*   

Form of Warrant Agreement

              
4.7*   

Form of Preferred Stock Certificate

              
4.8*   

Form of Subscription Rights Certificate

              
4.9*   

Form of Unit

              
4.10*   

Form of Unit Agreement

              
5.1   

Opinion of Fenwick & West LLP

                 X  
23.1   

Consent of KPMG LLP

                 X  
23.2    Consent of Fenwick & West LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)                  X  
24.1    Power of Attorney (included on the signature page hereto)                  X  
25.1**    Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Senior Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.               
25.2**    Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Subordinated Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.               

 

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Table of Contents

 

*

To be filed by amendment or as an exhibit to a report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended and incorporated herein by reference.

**

To be filed in accordance with the requirements of Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and Rule 5b-3 thereunder.

 

Item 17.

Undertakings

(a) The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i) to include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

(ii) to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

(iii) to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided, however, that subparagraphs (i), (ii), and (iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission by the Registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

(i) Each prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided,

 

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however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the Registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned Registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned Registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned Registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

(i) any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned Registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

(ii) any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned Registrant;

(iii) the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned Registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant; and

(iv) any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned Registrant to the purchaser.

(b) The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the Registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(c) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers, and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer, or controlling person of the Registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit, or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer, or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

(d) The Registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Bedford, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, on July 10, 2020.

 

STOKE THERAPEUTICS, INC.

By:

 

/s/ Edward M. Kaye

 

Edward M. Kaye, M.D.

 

Chief Executive Officer

POWER OF ATTORNEY

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints Edward M. Kaye and Stephen J. Tulipano, and each of them, as his true and lawful attorneys-in-fact, proxies and agents, each with full power of substitution, for him in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments to this registration statement (including pre-effective and post-effective amendments, any supplements, any abbreviated registration statement and any amendments thereto filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) increasing the number of securities for which registration is sought), and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact, proxies and agents full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith, as fully for all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact, proxies and agents, or their or his substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Edward M. Kaye

Edward M. Kaye, M.D.

  

Chief Executive Officer and Director

(Principal Executive Officer)

  July 10, 2020

/s/ Stephen J. Tulipano

Stephen J. Tulipano

  

Chief Financial Officer

(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

  July 10, 2020

/s/ Jennifer C. Burstein

Jennifer C. Burstein

  

Director

  July 10, 2020

/s/ Seth L. Harrison

Seth L. Harrison, M.D.

  

Director

  July 10, 2020

/s/ Adrian R. Krainer

Adrian R. Krainer, Ph.D.

  

Director

  July 10, 2020

/s/ Arthur A. Levin

Arthur A. Levin, Ph.D.

  

Director

  July 10, 2020

/s/ Julie Anne Smith

Julie Anne Smith

  

Director

  July 10, 2020

/s/ Arthur O. Tzianabos

Arthur O. Tzianabos, Ph.D.

  

Director

  July 10, 2020

 

II-5

EX-1.2

EXHIBIT 1.2

STOKE THERAPEUTICS, INC.

Shares of Common Stock

(par value $0.0001 per share)

Controlled Equity OfferingSM

Sales Agreement

July 10, 2020

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

499 Park Avenue

New York, NY 10022

Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated

One South Street, 15th Floor

Baltimore, MD 21202

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Stoke Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. and Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated (each, an “Agent” and together, the “Agents”), as follows:

1.    Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through the Designated Agent, shares of common stock (the “Placement Shares”) of the Company, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Common Stock”); provided, however, that in no event shall the Company issue or sell through the Agents such number or dollar amount of Placement Shares that would (a) exceed the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock registered on the effective Registration Statement (defined below) pursuant to which the offering is being made, (b) exceed the number of authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock (less shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise, conversion or exchange of any outstanding securities of the Company or otherwise reserved from the Company’s authorized capital stock), (c) exceed the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock permitted to be sold under Form S-3 (including General Instruction I.B.6 thereof, if applicable) or (d) exceed the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock for which the Company has filed a Prospectus Supplement (defined below) (the lesser of (a), (b), (c) and (d), the “Maximum Amount”). Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitations set forth in this Section 1 on the amount of Placement Shares issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company and that the Agents shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The offer and sale of Placement Shares through the Designated Agent will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) filed by the Company and which will be declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement to issue Common Stock.


The Company will file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “Securities Act Regulations”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and the rules and regulations thereunder. The Company has prepared a prospectus or a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus included as part of the registration statement, which prospectus or prospectus supplement relates to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company (the “Prospectus Supplement”). The Company will furnish to each Agent, for use by such Agent, copies of the prospectus included as part of such registration statement, as supplemented, by the Prospectus Supplement, relating to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company. The Company may file one or more additional registration statements from time to time that will contain a base prospectus and related prospectus or prospectus supplement, if applicable (which shall be a Prospectus Supplement), with respect to the Placement Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement(s), including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act Regulations or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B of the Securities Act Regulations, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The base prospectus or base prospectuses, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented, if necessary, by the Prospectus Supplement, in the form in which such prospectus or prospectuses and/or Prospectus Supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act Regulations, together with the then issued Issuer Free Writing Prospectus(es) (defined below), is herein called the “Prospectus.”

Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, any Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents, if any, incorporated by reference therein (the “Incorporated Documents”), including, unless the context otherwise requires, the documents, if any, filed as exhibits to such Incorporated Documents. Any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, any Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Exchange Act on or after the most-recent effective date of the Registration Statement, or the date of the Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, as the case may be, and incorporated therein by reference. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include the most recent copy filed with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval system, or if applicable, the Interactive Data Electronic Application system when used by the Commission (collectively, “EDGAR”).

2.    Placements. Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell Placement Shares hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify the Designated Agent by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to by the parties) of the number of Placement Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one day and any minimum price below which sales may

 

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not be made (a “Placement Notice”), the form of which is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 3 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from the Designated Agent to whom the Placement Notice is delivered, as set forth on Schedule 3, as such Schedule 3 may be amended from time to time. The Placement Notice shall be effective immediately upon receipt by the Designated Agent unless and until (i) the Designated Agent declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, (ii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares thereunder have been sold, (iii) the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice or (iv) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 12. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to any Agent in connection with such Agent’s sale of the Placement Shares, as the Designated Agent, shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 2. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor either Agent will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to a Designated Agent and the Designated Agent does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.

3.    Sale of Placement Shares by the Designated Agent. Subject to the provisions of Section 5(a), each Designated Agent that receives a Placement Notice, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market, to sell the Placement Shares up to the amount specified, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice. Each Designated Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number of Placement Shares sold on such day, the compensation payable by the Company to the Designated Agent pursuant to Section 2 with respect to such sales, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company, with an itemization of the deductions made by the Designated Agent (as set forth in Section 5(b)) from the gross proceeds that it receives from such sales. Subject to the terms of the Placement Notice, the Designated Agent may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act Regulations, including sales made directly on or through the Nasdaq Global Select Market (the “Exchange”) or any other existing trading market for the Common Stock, in negotiated transactions at market prices prevailing at the time of sale or at prices related to such prevailing market prices and/or any other method permitted by law. “Trading Day” means any day on which Common Stock is traded on the Exchange.

4.    Suspension of Sales. The Company or the Designated Agent may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 3, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 3), suspend any sale of Placement Shares (a “Suspension”); provided, however, that such Suspension shall not affect or impair any party’s obligations with respect to

 

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any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. While a Suspension is in effect any obligation under Sections 7(l), 7(m), and 7(n) with respect to the delivery of certificates, opinions, or comfort letters to the Agents, shall be waived. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against any other party unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 3 hereto, as such Schedule may be amended from time to time.

5.    Sale and Delivery to the Agents; Settlement.

(a)    Sale of Placement Shares. On the basis of the representations and warranties herein contained and subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon a Designated Agent’s acceptance of the terms of a Placement Notice, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, the Designated Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations to sell such Placement Shares up to the amount specified, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that the Designated Agent will be successful in selling Placement Shares, (ii) the Designated Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by the Designated Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Agreement and (iii) the Designated Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise agreed by the Designated Agent and the Company.

(b)    Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date”). The Designated Agent shall notify the Company of each sale of Placement Shares no later than the opening of the Trading Day immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder. The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by the Designated Agent, after deduction for (i) the Designated Agent’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, and (ii) any transaction fees imposed by any Governmental Authority (as defined below) in respect of such sales.

(c)     Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Placement Shares being sold by crediting the account of the Designated Agent, or such designee’s account (provided the Designated Agent shall have given the Company written notice of such designee at least one Trading Day prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, the Designated Agent will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date. The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable),

 

-4-


defaults in its obligation to deliver Placement Shares on a Settlement Date, the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 10(a) hereto, it will (i) hold the Designated Agent harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable) and (ii) pay to the Designated Agent any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.

(d)    Denominations; Registration. Certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, shall be in such denominations and registered in such names as the Designated Agent may request in writing at least one full Business Day (as defined below) before the Settlement Date. The certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, will be made available by the Company for examination and packaging by the Designated Agent in the city of New York not later than noon (New York time) on the Business Day prior to the Settlement Date.

(e)    Limitations on Offering Size. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares if, after giving effect to the sale of such Placement Shares, the aggregate gross sales proceeds of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement would exceed the lesser of (A) together with all sales of Placement Shares under this Agreement, the Maximum Amount and (B) the amount authorized from time to time to be issued and sold under this Agreement by the Company’s board of directors, a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive committee, and notified to the Agents in writing. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement at a price lower than the minimum price authorized from time to time by the Company’s board of directors, a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive committee. Further, under no circumstances shall the Company cause or permit the aggregate offering amount of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement to exceed the Maximum Amount.

(f)    Sales Through Agents. With respect to the offering and sale of Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement, the Company agrees that any offer to sell Placement Shares, any solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares, and any sales of Placement Shares shall only be effected by or through the Designated Agent on any single given day, and the Company shall in no event request that more than one Agent offer or sell Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement on the same day.

6.    Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with each Agent that as of the date of this Agreement and as of each Applicable Time (as defined below):

(a)    Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement meet the requirements for and comply with the applicable conditions set forth in Form S-3 (including General Instructions I.A and I.B) under the Securities Act. The Registration Statement has been filed with the Commission and will be declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice by the Company. The Prospectus Supplement will name the Agents as agents in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution.” The Company has not received, and has no notice of, any order of the Commission preventing or suspending the use of the Registration Statement, or threatening or

 

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instituting proceedings for that purpose. The Registration Statement and the offer and sale of Placement Shares as contemplated hereby meet the requirements of Rule 415 under the Securities Act and comply in all material respects with said Rule. Any statutes, regulations, contracts or other documents that are required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement have been so described or filed. Copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, and any such amendments or supplements and all documents incorporated by reference therein that were filed with the Commission on or prior to the date of this Agreement have been delivered, or are available through EDGAR, to Agents and their counsel. The Company has not distributed and, prior to the later to occur of each Settlement Date and completion of the distribution of the Placement Shares, will not distribute any offering material in connection with the offering or sale of the Placement Shares other than the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below) to which the Agents have consented. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act and is currently listed on the Exchange under the trading symbol “STOK.” The Company has taken no action designed to, or likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act, delisting the Common Stock from the Exchange, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or the Exchange is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. To the Company’s knowledge, it is in compliance with all applicable listing requirements of the Exchange.

(b)    No Misstatement or Omission. The Registration Statement, when it became or becomes effective, and the Prospectus, and any amendment or supplement thereto, on the date of such Prospectus or amendment or supplement, conformed and will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act. At each Settlement Date, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as of such date, will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act. The Registration Statement, when it became or becomes effective, did not, and will not, contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus and any amendment and supplement thereto, on the date thereof and at each Applicable Time (defined below), did not or will not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The documents incorporated by reference in the Prospectus or any Prospectus Supplement did not, and any further documents filed and incorporated by reference therein will not, when filed with the Commission, contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated in such document or necessary to make the statements in such document, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The foregoing shall not apply to statements in, or omissions from, any such document made in reliance upon, and in conformity with, information furnished to the Company by either Agent specifically for use in the preparation thereof.

(c)    Conformity with Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto, and the documents incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto, when such documents were or are filed with the Commission under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or became or become effective under the Securities Act, as the case may be, conformed or will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable.

 

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(d)    Financial Information. The consolidated financial statements (including the related notes thereto) of the Company and its subsidiaries included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and Prospectus, comply in all material respects with the applicable requirements of the Securities Act and present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company and its subsidiaries as of the dates indicated and the results of their operations and the changes in their cash flows for the periods specified; such financial statements have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) in the United States applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods covered thereby, and any supporting schedules included in the Registration Statement present fairly, in all material respects, the information required to be stated therein; and the other financial information included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, has been derived from the accounting records of the Company and its subsidiaries and presents fairly, in all material respects, the information shown thereby. If applicable, the disclosure included in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, regarding “non-GAAP financial measures” (as such term is defined by the rules and regulations of the Commission) complies, to the extent applicable, with Regulation G of the Exchange Act and Item 10 of Regulation S-K of the Securities Act.

(e)    No Material Adverse Change. Since the date of the most recent financial statements of the Company included in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Free Writing Prospectus, if any, (i) there has not been any change in the capital stock (other than the issuance of shares of common stock upon exercise of stock options and warrants described as outstanding in, and the grant of options and awards under existing equity incentive plans described in, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus), short-term debt or long-term debt of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or any dividend or distribution of any kind declared, set aside for payment, paid or made by the Company on any class of capital stock, or any material adverse change, or any development that would reasonably be expected to result in a material adverse change, in or affecting the business, properties, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, results of operations or prospects of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole; (ii) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has entered into any transaction or agreement (whether or not in the ordinary course of business) that is material to the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole or incurred any liability or obligation, direct or contingent, that is material to the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole; and (iii) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has sustained any loss or interference with its business that is material to the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole and that is either from fire, explosion, flood or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any labor disturbance or dispute or any action, order or decree of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, except in each case as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

(f)    Organization and Good Standing. The Company and each of its subsidiaries have been duly organized and are validly existing and in good standing under the laws of their respective jurisdictions of organization, are duly qualified to do business and are in good standing in each jurisdiction in which their respective ownership or lease of property or the conduct of their respective businesses requires such qualification, and have all power and authority necessary to own or hold their respective properties and to conduct the businesses in which they are engaged, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing or have such power or authority would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the business, properties, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, results of

 

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operations or prospects of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole or on the performance by the Company of its obligations under this Agreement (a “Material Adverse Effect”). The Company does not own or control, directly or indirectly, any corporation, association or other entity other than the subsidiary listed in Schedule 4 hereto.

(g)    Capitalization. The Company has an authorized capitalization as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus under the heading “Description of Capital Stock”; all the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued and are fully paid and non-assessable and are not subject to any pre-emptive or similar rights; except as described in or expressly contemplated by the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no outstanding rights (including, without limitation, pre-emptive rights), warrants or options to acquire, or instruments convertible into or exchangeable for, any shares of capital stock or other equity interest in the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or any contract, commitment, agreement, understanding or arrangement of any kind relating to the issuance of any capital stock of the Company or any such subsidiary, any such convertible or exchangeable securities or any such rights, warrants or options. The capital stock of the Company conforms in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; and all the outstanding shares of capital stock or other equity interests of each subsidiary owned, directly or indirectly, by the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued, are fully paid and non-assessable and are owned directly or indirectly by the Company, free and clear of any lien, charge, encumbrance, security interest, restriction on voting or transfer or any other claim of any third party.

(h)    Stock Options. With respect to the stock options (the “Stock Options”) granted pursuant to the stock-based compensation plans of the Company and its subsidiaries (the “Company Stock Plans”), (i) each Stock Option intended to qualify as an “incentive stock option” under Section 422 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) so qualifies, (ii) each grant of a Stock Option was duly authorized no later than the date on which the grant of such Stock Option was by its terms to be effective by all necessary corporate action, including, as applicable, approval by the Company’s board of directors (or a duly constituted and authorized committee thereof) and any required stockholder approval by the necessary number of votes or written consents, and the award agreement governing such grant (if any) was duly executed and delivered by each party thereto, (iii) each such grant was made in accordance with the Company Stock Plans, the applicable terms of the Exchange Act and all other applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, including the rules of any exchange on which Company securities may be traded, and (iv) each such grant was properly accounted for in accordance with GAAP in the financial statements (including the related notes) of the Company. The Company has not knowingly granted, and there is no and has been no policy or practice of the Company of granting, Stock Options prior to, or otherwise coordinating the grant of Stock Options with, the release or other public announcement of material information regarding the Company or its subsidiaries or their results of operations or prospects.

(i)    Due Authorization. The Company has full right, power and authority to execute and deliver this Agreement and to perform its obligations hereunder; and all action required to be taken for the due and proper authorization, execution and delivery by it of this Agreement and the consummation by it of the transactions contemplated hereby has been duly and validly taken.

 

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(j)    Sales Agreement. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company.

(k)    The Placement Shares. The Placement Shares to be issued and delivered by the Company hereunder have been duly authorized by the Company and, when issued and delivered and paid for as provided herein, will be duly and validly issued, will be fully paid and nonassessable and will conform to the descriptions thereof in the Prospectus; and the issuance of the Placement Shares is not subject to any preemptive or similar rights that have not been duly waived or satisfied.

(l)    Description of the Sales Agreement. This Agreement conforms in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Prospectus and Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, if any.

(m)    No Violation or Default. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is (i) in violation of its charter or by-laws or similar organizational documents; (ii) in default, and no event has occurred that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default, in the due performance or observance of any term, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is bound or to which any property or asset of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject; or (iii) in violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, except, in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such default or violation that would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(n)    No Conflicts. The execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement, the issuance, offering and sale of the Placement Shares and the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement or the Prospectus will not (i) conflict with or result in a breach or violation of any of the terms or provisions of, or constitute a default under, result in the termination, modification or acceleration of, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property, right or asset of the Company or any of its subsidiaries pursuant to, any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is bound or to which any property, right or asset of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject, (ii) result in any violation of the provisions of the charter or by-laws or similar organizational documents of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or (iii) result in the violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, except, in the case of clauses (i) and (iii) above, for any such conflict, breach, violation, default, lien, charge or encumbrance that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

(o)    No Consents Required. No consent, approval, authorization, order, registration or qualification of or with any Governmental Authority is required for the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement, the issuance and sale by the Company of the Placement Shares and the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, except for (i) the registration of the Placement Shares under the Securities Act, (ii) such consents, approvals, authorizations, orders and registrations or qualifications as may be

 

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required by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”) and under applicable state securities laws in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares by the Agents acting as the Designated Agent.

(p)    Legal Proceedings. Except as described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, there are no legal, governmental or regulatory investigations, actions, demands, claims, suits, arbitrations, inquiries or proceedings (“Actions”) pending to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or to which any property of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is the subject that, individually or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to the Company or any of its subsidiaries, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; no such Actions are, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened or contemplated by any governmental or regulatory authority or threatened by others; and (i) there are no current or pending Actions that are required under the Securities Act to be described in the Prospectus that are not so described in the Prospectus and (ii) there are no statutes, regulations or contracts or other documents that are required under the Securities Act to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement or described in the Registration Statement that are not so filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement or described in the Registration Statement.

(q)    Independent Accountants. KPMG LLP, who have certified certain financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries, is an independent registered public accounting firm with respect to the Company and its subsidiaries within the applicable rules and regulations adopted by the Commission and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) and as required by the Securities Act.

(r)    Title to Real and Personal Property. The Company and its subsidiaries have good and marketable title in fee simple to, or have valid rights to lease or otherwise use, all items of real and personal property that are material to the respective businesses of the Company and its subsidiaries, in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances, claims and defects and imperfections of title except those that (i) do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and its subsidiaries or (ii) would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(s)    Intellectual Property. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect: (i) the Company and its subsidiaries own, have adequate rights to use, or can acquire on reasonable terms all patents, trademarks, service marks, trade names, domain names and other source indicators, copyrights and copyrightable works, know-how, trade secrets, systems, procedures, proprietary or confidential information and all other worldwide intellectual property (including all registrations and applications for registration of, and all goodwill associated with, any of the foregoing) (collectively, “Intellectual Property”) used in or necessary for the conduct of their respective businesses as now conducted or as contemplated in the Registration Statement and Prospectus to be conducted by them; (ii) the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for an action, suit, proceeding or claim asserting that the Company has infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated, or would upon the commercialization of any product described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus as under development infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate, any Intellectual Property of any person or entity; (iii) to the knowledge of the Company, all Intellectual Property owned by or exclusively licensed to the Company and its subsidiaries is valid and enforceable; (iv) to the knowledge of the Company, the

 

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Intellectual Property of the Company and its subsidiaries is not being infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated, and has not been infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated, by any person or entity; (v) the Company and its subsidiaries have taken reasonable steps in accordance with normal industry practice to maintain the confidentiality of all Intellectual Property the value of which to the Company or any of its subsidiaries is contingent upon maintaining the confidentiality thereof, and to the knowledge of the Company, no such Intellectual Property has been disclosed other than to employees, representatives and agents of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, all of whom are bound by written confidentiality agreements, (vi) there is no pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by any third party (A) challenging the Company’s or any of its subsidiaries’ rights in or to any Intellectual Property, (B) challenging the validity, enforceability or scope of any Intellectual Property owned by the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or (C) alleging that the Company or any of its subsidiaries has infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated any Intellectual Property of any third party, (vii) to the knowledge of the Company, there is no pending or threatened action, suit proceeding or claim by any third party challenging the validity, enforceability or scope of any Intellectual Property exclusively licensed to the Company or any of its subsidiaries and (viii) each agreement pursuant to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries obtains any license or other rights to any Intellectual Property is a valid and binding agreement of the Company and its subsidiaries and is in full force and effect, and none of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or, to the knowledge of the Company, any other party to any such agreement, is in default or breach under any terms of any such agreement and, to the knowledge of the Company, no event or circumstance has occurred that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute any event of default thereunder.

(t)    Preclinical Studies. (i) Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the preclinical studies conducted by or, to the knowledge of the Company, on behalf of or sponsored by the Company or its subsidiaries, or in which the Company or its subsidiaries have participated, that are described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, or the results of which are referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as applicable, were, and if still pending, are, being conducted in all material respects in accordance with standard medical and scientific research standards and procedures for products or product candidates comparable to those being developed by the Company and all applicable statutes, rules and regulations of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and comparable regulatory agencies outside of the United States to which they are subject, including the European Medicines Agency (collectively, the “Regulatory Authorities”) and all applicable statutes, rules and regulations of the Regulatory Authorities and Good Clinical Practice and Good Laboratory Practice requirements; (ii) the descriptions in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus of the results of such studies are accurate and complete descriptions in all material respects and fairly present the data derived therefrom; (iii) the Company has no knowledge of any other studies not described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, the results of which are inconsistent with or call into question the results described or referred to in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any; (iv) the Company and its subsidiaries have operated at all times and are currently in compliance in all respects with all applicable statutes, rules and regulations of the Regulatory Authorities, except that where such non-compliance would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect; (v) the Company has provided the Agents with all substantive written notices, correspondence and summaries of all other communications from the Regulatory Authorities; and

 

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(vi) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries have received any written notices, correspondence or other communications from the Regulatory Authorities or any other governmental agency requiring or threatening the termination, material modification or suspension of any preclinical studies that are described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or the results of which are referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus other than ordinary course communications with respect to modifications in connection with the design and implementation of such studies or planned clinical trials, and, to the Company’s knowledge, there are no reasonable grounds for the same.

(u)    Regulatory Filings. The Company has not failed to file with the Regulatory Authorities any required filing, declaration, listing, registration, report or submission with respect to the Company’s product candidates that are described or referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. All such filings, declarations, listings, registrations, reports or submissions, as applicable, were in material compliance with applicable laws when filed; and no material deficiencies regarding compliance with applicable law have been asserted by any applicable Regulatory Authority with respect to any such filings, declarations, listings, registrations, reports or submissions.

(v)    No Undisclosed Relationships. No relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or any of its subsidiaries, on the one hand, and the directors, officers, stockholders, customers, suppliers or other affiliates of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, on the other, that is required by the Securities Act to be described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and that is not so described in such documents.

(w)    Investment Company Act. The Company is not and, after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Placement Shares and the application of the proceeds thereof as described in the Prospectus, will not be required to register as an “investment company” or an entity “controlled” by an “investment company” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder (collectively, the “Investment Company Act”).

(x)    Taxes. The Company and its subsidiaries have paid all income and other material federal, state, local and foreign taxes and filed all tax returns required to be paid or filed through the date hereof; and except as otherwise disclosed in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there is no tax deficiency that has been, or would reasonably be expected to be, asserted against the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any of their respective properties or assets and which would reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect.

(y)    Licenses and Permits. The Company and its subsidiaries possess all licenses, sub-licenses, certificates, permits and other authorizations issued by, and have made all declarations and filings with, the appropriate federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory authorities that are necessary for the ownership or lease of their respective properties or the conduct of their respective businesses as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, except where the failure to possess or make the same would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and except as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received notice of any revocation or modification of any such license, sub-license, certificate, permit or authorization or has any reason to believe that any such license, sub-license, certificate, permit or authorization will not be renewed in the ordinary course.

 

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(z)    No Labor Disputes. No labor disturbance by or dispute with employees of the Company or any of its subsidiaries exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is contemplated or threatened, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by, or dispute with, the employees of any of its or its subsidiaries’ principal suppliers, contractors or customers, except as would not have a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received any notice of cancellation or termination with respect to any collective bargaining agreement to which it is a party.

(aa)    Certain Environmental Matters. (i) The Company and its subsidiaries (x) are in compliance with all, and have not violated any, applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws (including common law), rules, regulations, requirements, decisions, judgments, decrees, orders and other legally enforceable requirements relating to pollution or the protection of human health or safety, the environment, natural resources, hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants (collectively, “Environmental Laws”); (y) have received and are in compliance with all, and have not violated any, permits, licenses, certificates or other authorizations or approvals required of them under any Environmental Laws to conduct their respective businesses; and (z) have not received notice of any actual or potential liability or obligation under or relating to, or any actual or potential violation of, any Environmental Laws, including for the investigation or remediation of any disposal or release of hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, and have no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in any such notice, and (ii) there are no costs or liabilities associated with Environmental Laws of or relating to the Company or its subsidiaries, except in the case of each of (i) and (ii) above, for any such matter as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and (iii) except as described in the Prospectus, (x) there is no proceeding that is pending, or that is known to be contemplated, against the Company or any of its subsidiaries under any Environmental Laws in which a governmental entity is also a party, other than such proceeding regarding which it is reasonably believed no monetary sanctions of $100,000 or more will be imposed, (y) the Company and its subsidiaries are not aware of any facts or issues regarding compliance with Environmental Laws, or liabilities or other obligations under Environmental Laws or concerning hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, that would reasonably be expected to have a material effect on the capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position of the Company and its subsidiaries, and (z) none of the Company or its subsidiaries anticipates material capital expenditures relating to any Environmental Laws.

(bb)    Compliance with ERISA. (i) Each employee benefit plan, within the meaning of Section 3(3) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”), for which the Company or any member of its “Controlled Group” (defined as any entity, whether or not incorporated, that is under common control with the Company within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(14) of ERISA or any entity that would be regarded as a single employer with the Company under Section 414(b),(c),(m) or (o) of the Code would have any liability (each, a “Plan”) has been maintained in compliance with its terms and the requirements of any applicable statutes, orders, rules and regulations, including but not limited to ERISA and the Code; (ii) no prohibited transaction, within the meaning of Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975

 

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of the Code, has occurred with respect to any Plan, excluding transactions effected pursuant to a statutory or administrative exemption; (iii) for each Plan that is subject to the funding rules of Section 412 of the Code or Section 302 of ERISA, no Plan has failed (whether or not waived), or is reasonably expected to fail, to satisfy the minimum funding standards (within the meaning of Section 302 of ERISA or Section 412 of the Code) applicable to such Plan; (iv) no Plan is, or is reasonably expected to be, in “at risk status” (within the meaning of Section 303(i) of ERISA) and no Plan that is a “multiemployer plan” within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(3) of ERISA is in “endangered status” or “critical status” (within the meaning of Sections 304 and 305 of ERISA) (v) the fair market value of the assets of each Plan exceeds the present value of all benefits accrued under such Plan (determined based on those assumptions used to fund such Plan); (vi) no “reportable event” (within the meaning of Section 4043(c) of ERISA and the regulations promulgated thereunder) has occurred or is reasonably expected to occur; (vii) each Plan that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code is so qualified, and nothing has occurred, whether by action or by failure to act, which would cause the loss of such qualification; (viii) neither the Company nor any member of the Controlled Group has incurred, nor reasonably expects to incur, any liability under Title IV of ERISA (other than contributions to the Plan or premiums to the Pension Benefit Guarantee Corporation, in the ordinary course and without default) in respect of a Plan (including a “multiemployer plan” within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(3) of ERISA); and (ix) none of the following events has occurred or is reasonably likely to occur: (A) a material increase in the aggregate amount of contributions required to be made to all Plans by the Company or its Controlled Group affiliates in the current fiscal year of the Company and its Controlled Group affiliates compared to the amount of such contributions made in the Company’s and its Controlled Group affiliates’ most recently completed fiscal year; or (B) a material increase in the Company and its subsidiaries’ “accumulated post-retirement benefit obligations” (within the meaning of Accounting Standards Codification Topic 715-60) compared to the amount of such obligations in the Company and its subsidiaries’ most recently completed fiscal year, except in each case with respect to the events or conditions set forth in (i) through (ix) hereof, as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

(cc)    Disclosure Controls. The Company (on a consolidated basis with its subsidiary) maintains an effective system of “disclosure controls and procedures” (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the Exchange Act) that complies with the applicable requirements of the Exchange Act and that has been designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including controls and procedures designed to ensure that such information is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

(dd)    Accounting Controls. The Company (on a consolidated basis with its subsidiary) maintains systems of “internal control over financial reporting” (as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) of the Exchange Act) that comply with the applicable requirements of the Exchange Act and have been designed by, or under the supervision of, their respective principal executive and principal financial officers, or persons performing similar functions, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP. The Company and its subsidiaries maintain internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are

 

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executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain asset accountability; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. There are no material weaknesses in the Company’s internal controls. The Company’s auditors and the Audit Committee of the Company’s board of directors have been advised of: (i) all significant deficiencies and material weaknesses, if any, in the design or operation of internal controls over financial reporting which have adversely affected or are reasonably likely to adversely affect the Company’s ability to record, process, summarize and report financial information; and (ii) any fraud, whether or not material, that involves management or other employees who have a significant role in the Company’s internal controls over financial reporting.

(ee)    Insurance. The Company and its subsidiaries have insurance covering their respective properties, operations, personnel and businesses, including business interruption insurance, which insurance is in amounts and insures against such losses and risks as are generally maintained by companies engaged in the same or similar businesses and at the same or a similar stage of development, and which the Company reasonably believes are adequate to protect the Company and its business; and neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has (i) received notice from any insurer or agent of such insurer that capital improvements or other expenditures are required or necessary to be made in order to continue such insurance or (ii) any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage at reasonable cost from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business.

(ff)    Cybersecurity; Data Protection. The Company and its subsidiaries’ information technology assets and equipment, computers, systems, networks, hardware, software, websites, applications, and databases (collectively, “IT Systems”) are adequate for, and operate and perform in all material respects as required in connection with, the operation of the business of the Company and its subsidiaries as currently conducted. The Company and its subsidiaries have implemented and maintained commercially reasonable controls, procedures and safeguards to ensure the IT Systems are free and clear of all material bugs, errors, defects, Trojan horses, time bombs, malware and other corruptants and to maintain and protect their material confidential information and Personal Data (defined below) and the integrity and security of all material IT Systems. As used herein, “Personal Data” shall refer to all personal or regulated data that relates to an identified or identifiable natural person according to applicable law that is maintained by the Company or any of its subsidiaries and used in connection with the Company or its subsidiaries’ respective businesses. To the knowledge of the Company, there have been no material breaches, violations, outages or unauthorized uses of or access to Personal Data, except for those that have been remedied without material cost or liability, nor any related incidents under investigation by a governmental or regulatory authority. To the knowledge of the Company, the Company and its subsidiaries are presently in material compliance with all applicable laws, internal policies and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Personal Data and to the protection of IT Systems and Personal Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification.

 

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(gg)    No Unlawful Payments. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries, nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, employee of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or any agent, affiliate or other person associated with or acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries has (i) used any corporate funds for any unlawful contribution, gift, entertainment or other unlawful expense relating to political activity; (ii) made or taken an act in furtherance of an offer, promise or authorization of any direct or indirect unlawful payment or benefit to any foreign or domestic government official or employee, including of any government-owned or controlled entity or of a public international organization, or any person acting in an official capacity for or on behalf of any of the foregoing, or any political party or party official or candidate for political office; (iii) violated or is in violation of any provision of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or any applicable law or regulation implementing the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, or committed an offence under the Bribery Act 2010 of the United Kingdom or any other applicable anti-bribery or anti-corruption law; or (iv) made, offered, agreed, requested or taken an act in furtherance of any unlawful bribe or other unlawful benefit, including, without limitation, any rebate, payoff, influence payment, kickback or other unlawful or improper payment or benefit. The Company and its subsidiaries have instituted, maintain and enforce, and will continue to maintain and enforce policies and procedures designed to promote and ensure compliance with all applicable anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws.

(hh)    Compliance with Anti-Money Laundering Laws. The operations of the Company and its subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements, including those of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, the applicable money laundering statutes of all jurisdictions where the Company or any of its subsidiaries conducts business, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency (collectively, the “Anti-Money Laundering Laws”) and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries with respect to the Anti-Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.

(ii)    No Conflicts with Sanctions Laws. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries, nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, employee, agent, affiliate or other person associated with or acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is currently the subject or the target of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. government, (including, without limitation, the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury (“OFAC”) or the U.S. Department of State and including, without limitation, the designation as a “specially designated national” or “blocked person”), the United Nations Security Council (“UNSC”), the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury (“HMT”) or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), nor is the Company or any of its subsidiaries located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject or target of Sanctions, including, without limitation, Crimea, Cuba, Iran, North Korea and Syria (each, a “Sanctioned Country”); and the Company will not directly or indirectly use the proceeds of the offering of the Placement Shares hereunder, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other person or entity (i) to fund or facilitate any activities of or business with any person that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the

 

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subject or target of Sanctions, (ii) to fund or facilitate any activities of or business in any Sanctioned Country or (iii) in any other manner that will result in a violation by any person (including any person participating in the transaction, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise) of Sanctions. For the past five years, the Company and its subsidiaries have not knowingly engaged in and are not now knowingly engaged in any dealings or transactions with any person that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject or the target of Sanctions or with any Sanctioned Country.

(jj)    No Restrictions on Subsidiaries. Subject to any restrictions under any applicable, laws, no subsidiary of the Company is currently prohibited, directly or indirectly, under any agreement or other instrument to which it is a party or is subject, from paying any dividends to the Company, from making any other distribution on such subsidiary’s capital stock or similar ownership interest, from repaying to the Company any loans or advances to such subsidiary from the Company or from transferring any of such subsidiary’s properties or assets to the Company or any other subsidiary of the Company.

(kk)    No Broker’s Fees. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is a party to any contract, agreement or understanding with any person (other than this Agreement) that would give rise to a valid claim against any of them or any Agent for a brokerage commission, finder’s fee or like payment in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.

(ll)    No Registration Rights. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, to the extent that any person has the right to require the Company or any of its subsidiaries to register any securities for sale under the Securities Act by reason of the filing of the Registration Statement with the Commission or the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares, those rights have been waived as of the date of this Agreement with respect to such filing or issuance and sale of Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement.

(mm)    No Stabilization. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries or affiliates has taken, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that would reasonably be expected to cause or result in any stabilization or manipulation of the price of the Placement Shares.

(nn)    Margin Rules. Neither the issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares nor the application of the proceeds thereof by the Company as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus will violate Regulation T, U or X of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or any other regulation of such Board of Governors.

(oo)    Forward-Looking Statements. No forward-looking statement (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act) included in any of the Registration Statement or the Prospectus has been made or reaffirmed without a reasonable basis or has been disclosed other than in good faith.

(pp)    Statistical and Market Data. Nothing has come to the attention of the Company that has caused the Company to believe that the statistical and market-related data included in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus is not based on or derived from sources that are reliable and accurate in all material respects.

 

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(qq)    Sarbanes-Oxley Act. There is and has been no failure on the part of the Company or any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply with any provision of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended and the rules and regulations promulgated in connection therewith (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), with which the Company is required to comply, including Section 402 related to loans.

(rr)    Status under the Securities Act. At the time of filing the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, at the earliest time thereafter that the Company or any offering participant made a bona fide offer (within the meaning of Rule 164(h)(2) under the Securities Act) of the Placement Shares and at the date hereof, the Company was not and is not an “ineligible issuer,” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act. The Company has paid the registration fee for this offering pursuant to Rule 456(b)(1) under the Securities Act or will pay such fee within the time period required by such rule (without giving effect to the proviso therein) and in any event prior to the Closing Date.

(ss)    No Ratings. There are (and prior to the Closing Date, will be) no debt securities, convertible securities or preferred stock issued or guaranteed by the Company or any of its subsidiaries that are rated by a “nationally recognized statistical rating organization”, as such term is defined in Section 3(a)(62) under the Exchange Act.

(tt)    No Preferential Rights. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (i) no person, as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated under the Securities Act (each, a “Person”), has the right, contractual or otherwise, to cause the Company to issue or sell to such Person any Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company (other than upon the exercise of options, warrants or other securities convertible or exercisable into shares of Common Stock outstanding on the date hereof, or upon the grant or exercise of equity awards that may be granted from time to time under the Company Stock Plans or benefit plans), (ii) no Person has any preemptive rights, resale rights, rights of first refusal, rights of co-sale, or any other rights (whether pursuant to a “poison pill” provision or otherwise) to purchase any Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company, (iii) no Person has the right to act as an underwriter or as a financial advisor to the Company in connection with the offer and sale of the Common Stock, and (iv) no Person has the right, contractual or otherwise, to require the Company to register under the Securities Act any Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company, or to include any such shares or other securities in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, whether as a result of the filing or effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated thereby or otherwise.

(uu)     Broker/Dealer Relationships. Neither the Company nor any of the subsidiaries (i) is required to register as a “broker” or “dealer” in accordance with the provisions of the Exchange Act or (ii) directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is a “person associated with a member” or “associated person of a member” (within the meaning set forth in the FINRA Manual).

(vv)    Agent Purchases. The Company acknowledges and agrees that Agents have informed the Company that the Agents may, to the extent permitted under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, purchase and sell Common Stock for their own account while this Agreement is in effect, provided, that (i) no such purchase or sales shall take place while a Placement Notice

 

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is in effect (except to the extent the Agents may engage in sales of Placement Shares purchased or deemed purchased from the Company as a “riskless principal” or in a similar capacity) and (ii) the Company shall not be deemed to have authorized or consented to any such purchases or sales by the Agents.

(ww)     Stock Transfer Taxes. On each Settlement Date, all stock transfer or other taxes (other than income taxes) which are required to be paid in connection with the sale and transfer of the Placement Shares to be sold hereunder will be, or will have been, fully paid or provided for by the Company and all laws imposing such taxes will be or will have been fully complied with.

(xx)    Compliance with Laws. The Company and each of its subsidiaries are in compliance with all applicable laws, regulations and statutes (including all environmental laws and regulations) in the jurisdictions in which it carries on business; the Company has not received a notice of non-compliance, nor knows of, nor has reasonable grounds to know of, any facts that could give rise to a notice of non-compliance with any such laws, regulations and statutes, and is not aware of any pending change or contemplated change to any applicable law or regulation or governmental position; in each case that would materially adversely affect the business of the Company or the business or legal environment under which the Company operates. Each of the Company and its subsidiaries: (A) is and at all times has been in compliance with all statutes, rules, or regulations applicable to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, marketing, labeling, promotion, sale, offer for sale, storage, import, export or disposal of any product manufactured or distributed by the Company or its subsidiaries (“Applicable Laws”), except as could not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect; (B) has not received any FDA Form 483, notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or notice from the FDA or any other Governmental Authority alleging or asserting noncompliance with any Applicable Laws or any licenses, certificates, approvals, clearances, authorizations, permits and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Applicable Laws (“Authorizations”); (C) possesses all material Authorizations and such Authorizations are valid and in full force and effect and are not in material violation of any term of any such Authorizations; (D) has not received notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from any Governmental Authority or third party alleging that any product operation or activity is in violation of any Applicable Laws or Authorizations and has no knowledge that any such Governmental Authority or third party is considering any such claim, litigation, arbitration, action, suit, investigation or proceeding; (E) has not received notice that any Governmental Authority has taken, is taking or intends to take action to limit, suspend, modify or revoke any Authorizations and has no knowledge that any such Governmental Authority is considering such action; (F) has filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Applicable Laws or Authorizations and that all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were complete and correct on the date filed (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission); and (G) has not, either voluntarily or involuntarily, initiated, conducted, or issued or caused to be initiated, conducted or issued, any recall, market withdrawal or replacement, safety alert, post sale warning, “dear healthcare provider” letter, or other notice or action relating to the alleged lack of safety or efficacy of any product or any alleged product defect or violation and, to the Company’s knowledge, no third party has initiated, conducted or intends to initiate any such notice or action.

 

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(yy)    Emerging Growth Company Status. From the time of the initial filing of the initial confidential submission of the registration statement to the Commission through the date hereof, the Company has been and is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act (an “Emerging Growth Company”).

Any certificate signed by an officer of the Company and delivered to the Agents or to counsel for the Agents pursuant to or in connection with this Agreement shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty by the Company, as applicable, to the Agents as to the matters set forth therein.

7.    Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with each Agent that:

(a)    Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by a Designated Agent under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or similar rule), (i) the Company will notify the Agents promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information, (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon either Agent’s request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in such Agent’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by the Agents (provided, however, that the failure of the Agents to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agents’ right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agents shall have with respect to the failure to make such filing shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to the Agent within a reasonable period of time before the filing and neither Agent has objected thereto (provided, however, that the failure of either Agent to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agents’ right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agents shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to obtain such consent shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to the Agents at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; and (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act or, in the case of any document to be incorporated therein by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the Exchange Act, within the time period prescribed (the determination to file or not file any amendment or supplement with the Commission under this Section 7(a), based on the Company’s reasonable opinion or reasonable objections, shall be made exclusively by the Company).

 

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(b)    Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise the Agents, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued. The Company will advise the Agents promptly after it receives any request by the Commission for any amendments to the Registration Statement or any amendment or supplements to the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or for additional information related to the offering of the Placement Shares or for additional information related to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus.

(c)    Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by a Designated Agent under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of the Placement Shares, (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or similar rule), the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due dates all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If the Company has omitted any information from the Registration Statement pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, it will use its best efforts to comply with the provisions of and make all requisite filings with the Commission pursuant to said Rule 430B and to notify the Agents promptly of all such filings. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify the Designated Agent to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance.

(d)    Listing of Placement Shares. Prior to the date of the first Placement Notice, the Company will use its reasonable best efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on the Exchange.

(e)    Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to the Agents and their counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all documents incorporated by reference therein) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all documents filed with the Commission during such period that are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein), in each case as soon as

 

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reasonably practicable and in such quantities as the Agents may from time to time reasonably request and, at the Agents’ request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to the Agents to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

(f)    Earning Statement. To the extent not available on EDGAR, the Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earning statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) and Rule 158 of the Securities Act.

(g)    Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

(h)    Notice of Other Sales. Without the prior written consent of both Agents, the Company will not, directly or indirectly, offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, Common Stock during the period beginning on the fifth (5th) Trading Day immediately prior to the date on which any Placement Notice is delivered to a Designated Agent hereunder and ending on the fifth (5th) Trading Day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice (or, if the Placement Notice has been terminated or suspended prior to the sale of all Placement Shares covered by a Placement Notice, the date of such suspension or termination); and will not directly or indirectly in any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, Common Stock prior to the sixtieth (60th) day immediately following the termination of this Agreement; provided, however, that such restrictions will not be required in connection with the Company’s issuance or sale of (i) Common Stock, options to purchase Common Stock or Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of options, pursuant to any employee or director stock option or benefits plan, stock ownership plan or dividend reinvestment plan (but not Common Stock subject to a waiver to exceed plan limits in its dividend reinvestment plan) of the Company whether now in effect or hereafter implemented, (ii) Common Stock issuable upon conversion of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding, and disclosed in filings by the Company available on EDGAR or otherwise in writing to the Agents, (iii) Common Stock or securities convertible into or exchanges for Common Stock in privately negotiated transactions to vendors, customers, strategic partners or potential strategic partners or other investors conducted in a manner so as not to be integrated with the offering of Common Stock hereby, and (iv) Common Stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of Common Stock as consideration for mergers, acquisitions, other business combinations or strategic alliances occurring after the date of this Agreement which are not issued for capital raising purposes.

(i)    Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during the pendency of a Placement Notice advise the Designated Agent promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document required to be provided to the Agents pursuant to this Agreement.

 

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(j)    Due Diligence Cooperation. The Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Agents or their representatives in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as the Agents may reasonably request.

(k)    Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company agrees that on such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (each and every filing date under Rule 424(b), a “Filing Date”), which prospectus supplement will set forth, within the relevant period, the amount of Placement Shares sold through the Agents, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Agents with respect to such Placement Shares, and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market.

(l)    Representation Dates; Certificate. (1) On or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and (2) each time the Company:

(i) files the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares or amends or supplements (other than a prospectus supplement relating solely to an offering of securities other than the Placement Shares) the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of documents by reference into the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares;

(ii) files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act (including any Form 10-K/A containing amended financial information or a material amendment to the previously filed Form 10-K);

(iii) files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or

(iv) files a current report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than information “furnished” pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or to provide disclosure pursuant to Item 8.01 of Form 8-K relating to the reclassification of certain properties as discontinued operations in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 144) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a “Representation Date”);

the Company shall furnish the Agents (but in the case of clause (iv) above only if the Agents reasonably determine that the information contained in such Form 8-K is material) with a certificate dated as of the Representation Date, in the form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agents and their counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agents and their counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(l) shall

 

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be waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time during which no Placement Notice is pending or a Suspension is in effect, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers instructions for the sale of Placement Shares hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and the next occurring Representation Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Representation Date when a Suspension was in effect and did not provide the Agents with a certificate under this Section 7(l), then before the Company delivers the instructions for the sale of Placement Shares or either Agent sells any Placement Shares pursuant to such instructions, the Company shall provide the Agents with a certificate in conformity with this Section 7(l) dated as of the date that the instructions for the sale of Placement Shares are issued.

(m)    Legal Opinion. (1) On or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and (2) within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(l) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agents a written opinion of Fenwick & West LLP (“Company Counsel”), or other counsel mutually satisfactory to the Agents, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Agents and their counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agents and their counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, the Company shall be required to furnish to the Agents no more than one opinion hereunder per calendar quarter; provided, further, that in lieu of such opinions for subsequent periodic filings under the Exchange Act, counsel may furnish the Agents with a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that the Agents may rely on a prior opinion delivered under this Section 7(m) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented as of the date of the Reliance Letter).

(n)    Intellectual Property Opinion. (1) On or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and (2) within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(l) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agents a written opinion of Wilson Sonsini Goodrich Rosati P.C. (“Company IP Counsel”), or other counsel mutually satisfactory to the Agents, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Agents and their counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agents and their counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented.

(o)    Comfort Letter. (1) On or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and (2) within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(l) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall cause its independent registered public accounting firm to furnish the Agents letters (the “Comfort Letters”), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, which shall meet the requirements set forth in this Section 7(n); provided, that if requested by the Agents, the Company shall cause a Comfort Letter to be furnished to the Agents within ten (10) Trading Days of the date of occurrence of any material transaction or event, including the restatement of the Company’s financial statements. The Comfort Letter from the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm shall be in a form and substance

 

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mutually satisfactory to the Agents, (i) confirming that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to underwriters in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the “Initial Comfort Letter”) and (iii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

(p)    Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or might reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of Common Stock or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase Common Stock in violation of Regulation M, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than the Agents.

(q)    Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor any of its subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, required to register as an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act.

(r)    No Offer to Sell. Other than an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus approved in advance by the Company and the Agents in their capacity as agents hereunder, neither of the Agents nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than the Agents in their capacity as such) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares hereunder.

(s)    Blue Sky and Other Qualifications. The Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts, in cooperation with the Agents, to qualify the Placement Shares for offering and sale, or to obtain an exemption for the Placement Shares to be offered and sold, under the applicable securities laws of such states and other jurisdictions (domestic or foreign) as the Agents may designate and to maintain such qualifications and exemptions in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement); provided, however, that the Company shall not be obligated to file any general consent to service of process or to qualify as a foreign corporation or as a dealer in securities in any jurisdiction in which it is not so qualified or to subject itself to taxation in respect of doing business in any jurisdiction in which it is not otherwise so subject. In each jurisdiction in which the Placement Shares have been so qualified or exempt, the Company will file such statements and reports as may be required by the laws of such jurisdiction to continue such qualification or exemption, as the case may be, in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement).

(t)    Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company and its subsidiaries will maintain and keep accurate books and records reflecting their assets and maintain internal accounting controls in a manner designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and including those policies and procedures that

 

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(i) pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company, (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, (iii) that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with management’s and the Company’s directors’ authorization, and (iv) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on its financial statements. The Company and its subsidiaries will maintain such controls and other procedures, including, without limitation, those required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and the applicable regulations thereunder that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including its principal executive officer and principal financial officer, or persons performing similar functions, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure and to ensure that material information relating to the Company or its subsidiaries is made known to them by others within those entities, particularly during the period in which such periodic reports are being prepared.

(u)    Secretary’s Certificate; Further Documentation. Prior to the date of the first Placement Notice, the Company shall deliver to the Agents a certificate of the Secretary of the Company and attested to by an executive officer of the Company, dated as of such date, certifying as to (i) the Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Company, (ii) the Restated Bylaws of the Company, (iii) the resolutions of the Board of Directors of the Company authorizing the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and the issuance of the Placement Shares and (iv) the incumbency of the officers duly authorized to execute this Agreement and the other documents contemplated by this Agreement. Within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date, the Company shall have furnished to the Agents such further information, certificates and documents as the Agents may reasonably request.

(v)    Emerging Growth Company Status. The Company will promptly notify the Agents if the Company ceases to be an Emerging Growth Company at any time during the term of this Agreement.

8.    Payment of Expenses. The Company will pay all expenses incident to the performance of its obligations under this Agreement, including (i) the preparation and filing of the Registration Statement, including any fees required by the Commission, and the printing or electronic delivery of the Prospectus as originally filed and of each amendment and supplement thereto, in such number as the Agents shall deem necessary, (ii) the printing and delivery to the Agents of this Agreement and such other documents as may be required in connection with the offering, purchase, sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares, (iii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the certificates, if any, for the Placement Shares to the Agents, including any stock or other transfer taxes and any capital duties, stamp duties or other duties or taxes payable upon the sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares to the Agents, (iv) the reasonable and documented fees and disbursements of the counsel, accountants and other advisors to the

 

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Company, (v) the fees and expenses of Agents including but not limited to the reasonable and documented fees and expenses of one set of counsel to the Agents, payable upon the execution of this Agreement, in an aggregate amount not to exceed $50,000 to both Agents collectively, (vi) the qualification or exemption of the Placement Shares under state securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(r) hereof, including filing fees, but excluding fees of the Agents’ counsel, (vii) the printing and delivery to the Agents of copies of any Permitted Issuer Free Writing Prospectus and the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto in such number as the Agents shall deem necessary, (viii) the preparation, printing and delivery to the Agents of copies of the blue sky survey, (ix) the fees and expenses of the transfer agent and registrar for the Common Stock, (x) the filing and other fees incident to any review by FINRA of the terms of the sale of the Placement Shares including the reasonable and documented fees of the Agents’ counsel (subject to the cap, set forth in clause (v) above), and (xi) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing of the Placement Shares on the Exchange.

9.    Conditions to Agents’ Obligations. The obligations of the Agents hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein (other than those representations and warranties made as of a specified date or time), to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, to the completion by the Agents of a due diligence review satisfactory to it in their reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by the Agent in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

(a)    Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall have become effective and shall be available for the (i) resale of all Placement Shares issued to the Agent and not yet sold by the Agents and (ii) sale of all Placement Shares contemplated to be issued by any Placement Notice.

(b)    No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state Governmental Authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state Governmental Authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or material documents incorporated so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

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(c)    No Misstatement or Material Omission. Neither Agent shall have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in such Agent’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in such Agent’s reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

(d)    Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Effect or any development that would reasonably be expected to cause a Material Adverse Effect, or a downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities) by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), the effect of which, in the case of any such action by a rating organization described above, in the reasonable judgment of the Agents (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

(e)    Company Counsel Legal Opinions. The Agents shall have received the opinions of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinions is required pursuant to Section 7(m).

(f)    Company Intellectual Property Counsel Opinion. The Agents shall have received the opinions of Company IP Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinions is required pursuant to Section 7(n).

(g)    Agents’ Counsel Legal Opinion. On or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice given hereunder and at each subsequently occurring Representation Date requiring the delivery of written opinion by Company Counsel, the Agents shall cause to be furnished to such opinions reasonably satisfactory to Agents by legal counsel to the Agents.

(h)    Comfort Letter. The Agents shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(n).

(i)    Representation Certificate. The Agents shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(l) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(l).

(j)    No Suspension. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on the Exchange and the Common Stock shall not have been delisted from the Exchange.

(k)    Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(l), the Company shall have furnished to the Agents such appropriate further information, opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as the Agents may reasonably request. All such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents will be in compliance with the provisions hereof.

 

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(l)    Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.

(m)    Approval for Listing. The Placement Shares shall either have been (i) approved for listing on the Exchange, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on the Exchange at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice and the Exchange shall have reviewed such application and not provided any objections thereto.

(n)    FINRA. If applicable, FINRA shall have raised no objection to the terms of this offering and the amount of compensation allowable or payable to the Agents as described in the Prospectus.

(o)    No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit the Agents to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 12(a).

10.    Indemnification and Contribution.

(a)    Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless each Agent, its affiliates and their respective partners, members, directors, officers, employees and agents and each person, if any, who controls any Agent or any affiliate within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act as follows:

(i)    against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever, as incurred, joint or several, arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, or arising out of any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact included in any related Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading;

(ii)    against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever, as incurred, joint or several, to the extent of the aggregate amount paid in settlement of any litigation, or any investigation or proceeding by any Governmental Authority, commenced or threatened, or of any claim whatsoever based upon any such untrue statement or omission, or any such alleged untrue statement or omission; provided that (subject to Section 10(d) below) any such settlement is effected with the written consent of the Company, which consent shall not unreasonably be delayed or withheld; and

(iii)    against any and all expense whatsoever, as incurred (including the reasonable and documented fees and disbursements of counsel), reasonably incurred in

 

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investigating, preparing or defending against any litigation, or any investigation or proceeding by any Governmental Authority, commenced or threatened, or any claim whatsoever based upon any such untrue statement or omission, or any such alleged untrue statement or omission (whether or not a party), to the extent that any such expense is not paid under (i) or (ii) above,

provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to any loss, liability, claim, damage or expense to the extent arising out of any untrue statement or omission or alleged untrue statement or omission made solely in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent Information (as defined below).

(b)    Agent Indemnification. Each Agent, severally and not jointly, agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 10(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto), the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to the Agents and furnished to the Company in writing by the Agents expressly for use therein. The Company hereby acknowledges that the only information that the Agents have furnished to the Company expressly for use in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) are the statements set forth in the fifth, seventh and eighth paragraphs under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus (the “Agent Information”).

(c)    Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 10 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 10, notify each such indemnifying party of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 10 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 10 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any other legal expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the

 

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indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the defense of such action or counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, in each case, within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action; in each of which cases the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm (plus local counsel) admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly after the indemnifying party receives a written invoice relating to fees, disbursements and other changes in reasonable detail. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 10 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent (1) includes an express and unconditional release of each indemnified party, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to such indemnified party, from all liability arising out of such litigation, investigation, proceeding or claim and (2) does not include a statement as to or an admission of fault, culpability or a failure to act by or on behalf of any indemnified party.

(d)    Settlement Without Consent if Failure to Reimburse. If an indemnified party shall have requested an indemnifying party to reimburse the indemnified party for reasonable fees and expenses of counsel, such indemnifying party agrees that it shall be liable for any settlement of the nature contemplated by Section 10(a)(ii) effected without its written consent if (1) such settlement is entered into more than 45 days after receipt by such indemnifying party of the aforesaid request, (2) such indemnifying party shall have received notice of the terms of such settlement at least 30 days prior to such settlement being entered into and (3) such indemnifying party shall not have reimbursed such indemnified party in accordance with such request prior to the date of such settlement.

(e)    Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 10 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable or insufficient from the Company or the Agents, the Company and the Agents will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted) to which the Company and the Agents may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agents on the other hand. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agents on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same

 

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proportion as the total net proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by the each Agent from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agents, on the other hand, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or the Agents, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and the Agents agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 10(e) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 10(e) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 10(e), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 10(c) hereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 10(e), the Agents shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 10(e), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act, any affiliates of the Agents and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of the Agents or any of its affiliates, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each director of the Company and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 10(e), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 10(e) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 10(c) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 10(c) hereof. The Agents’ respective obligations to contribute pursuant to this Section 10(e) are several in proportion to the respective number of Placement Shares they have sold hereunder, and not joint.

11.    Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 10 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of the Agents, any

 

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controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors, employees or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

12.    Termination.

(a)    The Agents may terminate this Agreement, by notice to the Company, as hereinafter specified at any time (1) if there has been, since the time of execution of this Agreement or since the date as of which information is given in the Prospectus, any Material Adverse Effect that, in the sole judgment of the Agents is material and adverse and makes it impractical or inadvisable to market the Placement Shares or to enforce contracts for the sale of the Placement Shares, (2) if there has occurred any material adverse change in the financial markets in the United States or the international financial markets, any outbreak of hostilities or escalation thereof or other calamity or crisis or any change or development involving a prospective change in national or international political, financial or economic conditions, in each case the effect of which is such as to make it, in the judgment of the Agents, impracticable or inadvisable to market the Placement Shares or to enforce contracts for the sale of the Placement Shares, (3) if trading in the Common Stock has been suspended or limited by the Commission or the Exchange, or if trading generally on the Exchange has been suspended or limited, or minimum prices for trading have been fixed on the Exchange, (4) if any suspension of trading of any securities of the Company on any exchange or in the over-the-counter market shall have occurred and be continuing for at least five (5) Trading Days, (5) if a major disruption of securities settlements or clearance services in the United States shall have occurred and be continuing, or (6) if a banking moratorium has been declared by either U.S. Federal or New York authorities. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 8 (Payment of Expenses), Section 10 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 11 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 17 (Governing Law and Time; Waiver of Jury Trial) and Section 18 (Consent to Jurisdiction) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If the Agent elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 12(a), the Agents shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 13 (Notices). For the avoidance of doubt, the termination by one Agent of its rights and obligations under this Agreement pursuant to this Section 13(a) shall not affect the rights and obligations of the other Agents under this Agreement.

(b)    The Company shall have the right, by giving one (1) day’s notice as hereinafter specified to terminate its own obligations under this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 8, Section 10, Section 11, Section 17 and Section 18 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(c)    The Agents shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 8, Section 10, Section 11, Section 17 and Section 18 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. For the avoidance of doubt, the termination by one Agent of its rights and obligations under this Agreement pursuant to this Section 13(c) shall not affect the rights and obligations of the other Agents under this Agreement.

 

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(d)    Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 13, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Placement Shares through the Agents on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, provided that the provisions of Section 8, Section 10, Section 11, Section 17 and Section 18 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(e)    This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 12(a), (b), or (c) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 8, Section 10, Section 11, Section 17 and Section 18 shall remain in full force and effect. Upon termination of this Agreement, the Company shall not have any liability to an Agent for any discount, commission or other compensation with respect to any Placement Shares not otherwise sold by an Agent under this Agreement.

(f)    Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by the Agents or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

13.    Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing (including by electronic communication as set forth below), unless otherwise specified, and if sent to the Agent, shall be delivered to:

 

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

499 Park Avenue

New York, NY 10022

Attention:

Email:

Copy to:

 

Capital Markets

and:

 

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

499 Park Avenue

New York, NY 10022

Attention:

Email:

 

General Counsel

and:

 

Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated

One South Street, 15th Floor

Baltimore, MD 21202

Attention:

Email:

 

Syndicate Department

 

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with a copy to:

 

Goodwin Procter LLP

620 Eighth Avenue

New York, NY 10018

Attention:

Email:

 

Seo Salimi

and if to the Company, shall be delivered to:

 

Stoke Therapeutics, Inc.

45 Wiggins Ave

Bedford, MA 01730

Attention:

Email:

Copy to:

Email:

 

Edward M. Kaye, M.D.

 

Stephen Tulipano

with a copy to:

 

Fenwick & West LLP

555 California Street

San Francisco, CA 94104

Attention:

Email:

 

Robert Freedman

Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally on or before 4:30 p.m., New York City time, on a Business Day or, if such day is not a Business Day, on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) by Electronic Notice as set forth in the next paragraph, (iii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier and (iv) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid). For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Exchange and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

An electronic communication (“Electronic Notice”) shall be deemed written notice for purposes of this Section 13 if sent to the electronic mail address specified herein or by the receiving party under separate cover. Electronic Notice shall be deemed received at the time the party sending Electronic Notice receives verification of receipt by the receiving party. Any party receiving Electronic Notice may request and shall be entitled to receive the notice on paper, in a nonelectronic form (“Nonelectronic Notice”) which shall be sent to the requesting party within ten (10) days of receipt of the written request for Nonelectronic Notice, provided that any failure to provide such Nonelectronic Notice within such time period shall not affect the effectiveness or timing thereof of the Electronic Notice.

14.    Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and the Agents and their respective successors and the parties referred to in Section 10 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of such party. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto or their

 

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respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that the Agents may assign its rights and obligations hereunder to an affiliate thereof without obtaining the Company’s consent, so long as such affiliate is a registered broker dealer.

15.    Adjustments for Stock Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any stock split, stock dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Placement Shares.

16.    Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability; Waiver. This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and the Agents. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement. No implied waiver by a party shall arise in the absence of a waiver in writing signed by such party. No failure or delay in exercising any right, power, or privilege hereunder shall operate as a waiver thereof, nor shall any single or partial exercise thereof preclude any other or further exercise thereof or the exercise of any right, power, or privilege hereunder.

17.    GOVERNING LAW AND TIME; WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL. THIS AGREEMENT SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO THE PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAWS. SPECIFIED TIMES OF DAY REFER TO NEW YORK CITY TIME. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

18.    CONSENT TO JURISDICTION. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY SUBMITS TO THE EXCLUSIVE JURISDICTION OF THE STATE AND FEDERAL COURTS SITTING IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK, BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN, FOR THE ADJUDICATION OF ANY DISPUTE HEREUNDER OR IN CONNECTION WITH ANY TRANSACTION CONTEMPLATED HEREBY, AND HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, AND AGREES NOT TO ASSERT IN ANY SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING, ANY CLAIM THAT IT IS NOT PERSONALLY SUBJECT TO THE JURISDICTION OF ANY SUCH COURT, THAT SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING IS BROUGHT IN AN INCONVENIENT FORUM OR THAT THE VENUE OF SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING IS IMPROPER. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES

 

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PERSONAL SERVICE OF PROCESS AND CONSENTS TO PROCESS BEING SERVED IN ANY SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING BY MAILING A COPY THEREOF (CERTIFIED OR REGISTERED MAIL, RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED) TO SUCH PARTY AT THE ADDRESS IN EFFECT FOR NOTICES TO IT UNDER THIS AGREEMENT AND AGREES THAT SUCH SERVICE SHALL CONSTITUTE GOOD AND SUFFICIENT SERVICE OF PROCESS AND NOTICE THEREOF. NOTHING CONTAINED HEREIN SHALL BE DEEMED TO LIMIT IN ANY WAY ANY RIGHT TO SERVE PROCESS IN ANY MANNER PERMITTED BY LAW.

19.    Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by electronic transmission.

20.    Construction. The section and exhibit headings herein are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof. References herein to any law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any Governmental Authority shall be deemed to refer to such law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any Governmental Authority as amended, reenacted, supplemented or superseded in whole or in part and in effect from time to time and also to all rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

21.    Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses. The Company represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior written consent of the Agents (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of such party set forth on Schedule 3, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply), and the Agents represent, warrant and agree that, unless it obtains the prior written consent of the Company (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of such party set forth on Schedule 3, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply), they have not made and will not make any offer relating to the Placement Shares that would constitute an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, or that would otherwise constitute a “free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 405, required to be filed with the Commission. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Agents or by the Company, as the case may be, is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company represents and warrants that it has treated and agrees that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433, and has complied and will comply with the requirements of Rule 433 applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including timely filing with the Commission where required, legending and record keeping. For the purposes of clarity, the parties hereto agree that all free writing prospectuses, if any, listed in Exhibit 21 hereto are Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses.

22.    Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:

(a)    the Agents are acting solely as agent in connection with the public offering of the Placement Shares and in connection with each transaction contemplated by this Agreement and the process leading to such transactions, and no fiduciary or advisory relationship between the Company or any of its respective affiliates, stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees or any other party, on the one hand, and the Agents, on the other hand, has been or will

 

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be created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether or not the Agents have advised or are advising the Company on other matters, and the Agents have no obligation to the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement except the obligations expressly set forth in this Agreement;

(b)    it is capable of evaluating and understanding, and understands and accepts, the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;

(c)    neither the Agents nor their affiliates have provided any legal, accounting, regulatory or tax advice with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and it has consulted its own legal, accounting, regulatory and tax advisors to the extent it has deemed appropriate;

(d)    it is aware that the Agents and their affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and the Agents and their affiliates have no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship or otherwise; and

(e)    it waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against the Agents or their affiliates for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty in connection with the sale of Placement Shares under this Agreement and agrees that the Agents and their affiliates shall not have any liability (whether direct or indirect, in contract, tort or otherwise) to it in respect of such a fiduciary duty claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on its behalf or in right of it or the Company, employees or creditors of Company.

23.    Definitions. As used in this Agreement, the following terms have the respective meanings set forth below:

Applicable Time” means (i) each Representation Date, (ii) the time of each sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and (iii) each Settlement Date.

Designated Agent” shall mean, as of any given time, an Agent that the Company has designated as sales agent to sell Shares pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.

Governmental Authority means (i) any federal, provincial, state, local, municipal, national or international government or governmental authority, regulatory or administrative agency, governmental commission, department, board, bureau, agency or instrumentality, court, tribunal, arbitrator or arbitral body (public or private); (ii) any self-regulatory organization; or (iii) any political subdivision of any of the foregoing.

Issuer Free Writing Prospectus” means any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433, relating to the Placement Shares that (1) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company, (2) is a “road show” that is a “written communication” within the meaning of Rule 433(d)(8)(i) whether or not required to be filed with the Commission, or (3) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i) because it contains a description of the Placement Shares or of the offering that does not reflect the final terms, in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g) under the Securities Act Regulations.

 

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Rule 164,” “Rule 172,” “Rule 405,” “Rule 415,” “Rule 424,” “Rule 424(b),” “Rule 430B,” and “Rule 433” refer to such rules under the Securities Act Regulations.

All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information that is “contained,” “included” or “stated” in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information that is incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be.

All references in this Agreement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to any of the foregoing shall be deemed to include the copy filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR; all references in this Agreement to any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (other than any Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses that, pursuant to Rule 433, are not required to be filed with the Commission) shall be deemed to include the copy thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR; and all references in this Agreement to “supplements” to the Prospectus shall include, without limitation, any supplements, “wrappers” or similar materials prepared in connection with any offering, sale or private placement of any Placement Shares by the Agents outside of the United States.

[Signature Page Follows]

 

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If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and the Agents, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and the Agents.

 

Very truly yours,

STOKE THERAPEUTICS

By:  

/s/ Edward M. Kaye

  Name: Edward M. Kaye, M.D.
  Title:   Chief Executive Officer
ACCEPTED as of the date first-above written:

CANTOR FITZGERALD & CO.

By:  

/s/ Bala Murty

  Name: Bala Murty
  Title:   Chief Operating Officer

STIFEL, NICOLAUS & COMPANY, INCORPORATED

By:  

/s/ Daniel J. Covatta

  Name: Daniel J. Covatta
  Title:   Managing Director


SCHEDULE 1

 

 

Form of Placement Notice

 

 

 

From:    Stoke Therapeutics, Inc.
To:   

[Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

Attention: Sameer Vasudev]

  

[Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated

Attention: Mark Dempster]

Subject:    Placement Notice
Date:    [•], 202[    ]

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement between Stoke Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. (“Cantor”) and Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated (“Stifel”), dated July 10, 2020, the Company hereby requests that the Designated Agent sell up to [•] of the Company’s common stock, par value $$0.0001 per share, at a minimum market price of $[•] per share, during the time period beginning [month, day, time] and ending [month, day, time]. [The Agent acknowledges and agrees that the number of shares of Common Stock to be sold on any Trading Day shall not exceed [●] shares.]


SCHEDULE 2

 

 

Compensation

 

 

The Company shall pay to the Designated Agent in cash, upon each sale of Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement, an amount equal up to 3% of the aggregate gross proceeds from each sale of Placement Shares.


SCHEDULE 3

 

 

Notice Parties

 

 

The Company

Edward Kaye

With copies to:

Robin Walker

Stephen Tulipano

The Agents

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

Sameer Vasudev

Matthew Crawford

With copies to:

EunSu Chang

Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated

Dan Covatta

With copies to:

Mark Dempster


SCHEDULE 4

 

 

Subsidiaries

 

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 21.1 of the Company’s most recently filed Form 10-K.


Form of Representation Date Certificate Pursuant to Section 7(l)

The undersigned, the duly qualified and elected Secretary, of Stoke Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), does hereby certify in such capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 7(l) of the Sales Agreement, dated July 10, 2020 (the “Sales Agreement”), between the Company and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. and Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated, that to the best of the knowledge of the undersigned:

(i) The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Sales Agreement (A) to the extent such representations and warranties are subject to qualifications and exceptions contained therein relating to materiality or Material Adverse Effect, are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date and (B) to the extent such representations and warranties are not subject to any qualifications or exceptions are true and correct in all material respects on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date; provided, however, that such representations and warranties also shall be qualified by the disclosure included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and Prospectus; and

(ii) The Company has complied with all agreements and satisfied all conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied pursuant to the Sales Agreement at or prior to the date hereof.

Capitalized terms used herein without definition shall have the meanings given to such terms in the Sales Agreement.

 

STOKE THERAPEUTICS, INC.
By:  

 

Name:  

 

Title:  

 

Date: [•], 2020


Exhibit 21

Permitted Free Writing Prospectus

None.

EX-3.2

Exhibit 3.2

 

 

 

STOKE THERAPEUTICS, INC.

(a Delaware corporation)

RESTATED BYLAWS

As Adopted May 10, 2019 and Amended on April 14, 2020

 

 

 

 


STOKE THERAPEUTICS, INC.

(a Delaware corporation)

RESTATED BYLAWS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Article I: STOCKHOLDERS

     1  

Section 1.1:

 

Annual Meetings

     1  

Section 1.2:

 

Special Meetings

     1  

Section 1.3:

 

Notice of Meetings

     1  

Section 1.4:

 

Adjournments

     1  

Section 1.5:

 

Quorum

     2  

Section 1.6:

 

Organization

     2  

Section 1.7:

 

Voting; Proxies

     2  

Section 1.8:

 

Fixing Date for Determination of Stockholders of Record

     3  

Section 1.9:

 

List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote

     3  

Section 1.10:

 

Inspectors of Elections

     4  

Section 1.11:

 

Conduct of Meetings

     5  

Section 1.12:

 

Notice of Stockholder Business; Nominations.

     5  

Article II: BOARD OF DIRECTORS

     13  

Section 2.1:

 

Number; Qualifications

     13  

Section 2.2:

 

Election; Resignation; Removal; Vacancies

     14  

Section 2.3:

 

Regular Meetings

     14  

Section 2.4:

 

Special Meetings

     14  

Section 2.5:

 

Remote Meetings Permitted

     14  

Section 2.6:

 

Quorum; Vote Required for Action

     14  

Section 2.7:

 

Organization

     15  

Section 2.8:

 

Unanimous Action by Directors in Lieu of a Meeting

     15  

Section 2.9:

 

Powers

     15  

Section 2.10:

 

Compensation of Directors

     15  

Section 2.11:

 

Confidentiality

     15  

Article III: COMMITTEES

     15  

Section 3.1:

 

Committees

     15  

Section 3.2:

 

Committee Rules

     16  

Article IV: OFFICERS; CHAIRPERSON; LEAD INDEPENDENT DIRECTOR

     16  

Section 4.1:

 

Generally

     16  

Section 4.2:

 

Chief Executive Officer

     16  

Section 4.3:

 

Chairperson of the Board

     17  

Section 4.4:

 

Lead Independent Director

     17  

Section 4.5:

 

President

     17  

Section 4.6:

 

Chief Financial Officer

     17  

Section 4.7:

 

Treasurer

     18  

Section 4.8:

 

Vice President

     18  

Section 4.9:

 

Secretary

     18  

Section 4.10:

 

Delegation of Authority

     18  

 

i


Section 4.11:

 

Removal

     18  

Article V: STOCK

     18  

Section 5.1:

 

Certificates; Uncertificated Shares

     18  

Section 5.2:

 

Lost, Stolen or Destroyed Stock Certificates; Issuance of New Certificates or Uncertificated Shares

     19  

Section 5.3:

 

Other Regulations

     19  

Article VI: INDEMNIFICATION

     19  

Section 6.1:

 

Indemnification of Officers and Directors

     19  

Section 6.2:

 

Advance of Expenses

     20  

Section 6.3:

 

Non-Exclusivity of Rights

     20  

Section 6.4:

 

Indemnification Contracts

     20  

Section 6.5:

 

Right of Indemnitee to Bring Suit

     20  

Section 6.6:

 

Nature of Rights

     21  

Section 6.7:

 

Insurance

     21  

Article VII: NOTICES

     21  

Section 7.1:

 

Notice

     21  

Section 7.2:

 

Waiver of Notice

     22  

Article VIII: INTERESTED DIRECTORS

     22  

Section 8.1:

 

Interested Directors

     22  

Section 8.2:

 

Quorum

     22  

Article IX: MISCELLANEOUS

     23  

Section 9.1:

 

Fiscal Year

     23  

Section 9.2:

 

Seal

     23  

Section 9.3:

 

Form of Records

     23  

Section 9.4:

 

Reliance Upon Books and Records

     23  

Section 9.5:

 

Certificate of Incorporation Governs

     23  

Section 9.6:

 

Severability

     23  

Section 9.7:

 

Time Periods

     23  

Article X: AMENDMENT

     23  

Article XI: EXCLUSIVE FORUM

     24  

 

ii


STOKE THERAPEUTICS, INC.

(a Delaware corporation)

RESTATED BYLAWS

As Adopted May 10, 2019 and Amended on April 14, 2020

ARTICLE I: STOCKHOLDERS

Section 1.1: Annual Meetings. If required by applicable law, an annual meeting of stockholders shall be held for the election of directors at such date and time as the Board of Directors (the “Board”) of Stoke Therapeutics, Inc. (the “Corporation”) shall each year fix. The meeting may be held either at a place, within or without the State of Delaware as permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”), or by means of remote communication as the Board in its sole discretion may determine. Any proper business may be transacted at the annual meeting.

Section 1.2: Special Meetings. Special meetings of stockholders for any purpose or purposes shall be called in the manner set forth in the Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation (as the same may be amended and/or restated from time to time, the “Certificate of Incorporation”). The special meeting may be held either at a place, within or without the State of Delaware, or by means of remote communication as the Board in its sole discretion may determine. Business transacted at any special meeting of stockholders shall be limited to matters relating to the purpose or purposes stated in the notice of the meeting.

Section 1.3: Notice of Meetings. Notice of all meetings of stockholders shall be given in writing or by electronic transmission in the manner provided by applicable law (including, without limitation, as set forth in Section 7.1.1 of these Bylaws) stating the date, time and place, if any, of the meeting, the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, and the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (if such date is different from the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting). In the case of a special meeting, such notice shall also set forth the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called. Unless otherwise required by applicable law or the Certificate of Incorporation, notice of any meeting of stockholders shall be given not less than ten (10), nor more than sixty (60), days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at such meeting as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting.

Section 1.4: Adjournments. Notwithstanding Section 1.5 of these Bylaws, the chairperson of the meeting shall have the power to adjourn the meeting to another time, date and place (if any), regardless of whether quorum is present, at any time and for any reason. Any meeting of stockholders, annual or special, may be adjourned from time to time, and notice need not be given of any such adjourned meeting if the time, date and place (if any) thereof and the means of remote communication (if any) by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken; provided, however, that if the adjournment is for more than thirty (30) days, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting. If after the adjournment a new record date for determination of stockholders

 

-1-


entitled to vote is fixed for the adjourned meeting, the Board shall fix as the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and shall give notice of the adjourned meeting to each stockholder of record as of the record date so fixed for notice of such adjourned meeting. At the adjourned meeting, the Corporation may transact any business that might have been transacted at the original meeting. If a quorum is present at the original meeting, it shall also be deemed present at the adjourned meeting. To the fullest extent permitted by law, the Board may postpone, reschedule or cancel at any time and for any reason any previously scheduled special or annual meeting of stockholders before it is to be held, regardless of whether any notice or public disclosure with respect to any such meeting has been sent or made pursuant to Section 1.3 hereof or otherwise, in which case notice shall be provided to the stockholders of the new date, time and place, if any, of the meeting as provided in Section 1.3 above.

Section 1.5: Quorum. Except as otherwise provided by applicable law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, at each meeting of stockholders the holders of a majority of the voting power of the shares of stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote at the meeting, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business; provided, however, that where a separate vote by a class or classes or series of stock is required by applicable law or the Certificate of Incorporation, the holders of a majority of the voting power of the shares of such class or classes or series of the stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote on such matter, present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting, shall constitute a quorum entitled to take action with respect to the vote on such matter. If a quorum shall fail to attend any meeting, the chairperson of the meeting or, if directed to be voted on by the chairperson of the meeting, the holders of a majority of the voting power of the shares entitled to vote who are present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting may adjourn the meeting. Shares of the Corporation’s stock belonging to the Corporation (or to another corporation, if a majority of the shares entitled to vote in the election of directors of such other corporation are held, directly or indirectly, by the Corporation), shall neither be entitled to vote nor be counted for quorum purposes; provided, however, that the foregoing shall not limit the right of the Corporation or any other corporation to vote any shares of the Corporation’s stock held by it in a fiduciary capacity and to count such shares for purposes of determining a quorum. A quorum, once established at a meeting, shall not be broken by the withdrawal of enough votes to leave less than a quorum.

Section 1.6: Organization. Meetings of stockholders shall be presided over by (a) such person as the Board may designate, or (b) in the absence of such a person, the Chairperson of the Board, or (c) in the absence of such person, the Lead Independent Director, or, (d) in the absence of such person, the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation, or (e) in the absence of such person, the President of the Corporation, or (f) in the absence of such person, by a Vice President. The Secretary of the Corporation shall act as secretary of the meeting, but in such person’s absence the chairperson of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting.

Section 1.7: Voting; Proxies. Each stockholder of record entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder by proxy. Such a proxy may be prepared, transmitted and delivered in any manner permitted by applicable law. Except as may be required in the Certificate of Incorporation, directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes cast by the holders of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the election of directors. At all meetings of stockholders at

 

-2-


which a quorum is present, unless a different or minimum vote is required by applicable law, rule or regulation applicable to the Corporation or its securities, the rules or regulations of any stock exchange applicable to the Corporation, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, in which case such different or minimum vote shall be the applicable vote on the matter, every matter other than the election of directors shall be decided by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power of the shares of stock entitled to vote on such matter that are present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and are voted for or against the matter (or if there are two or more classes or series of stock entitled to vote as separate classes, then in the case of each class or series, the holders of a majority of the voting power of the shares of stock of that class or series present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting voting for or against such matter).

Section 1.8: Fixing Date for Determination of Stockholders of Record. In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the Board may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board, and which record date shall, unless otherwise required by law, not be more than sixty (60) nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting. If the Board so fixes a date, such date shall also be the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting unless the Board determines, at the time it fixes such record date, that a later date on or before the date of the meeting shall be the date for making such determination. If no record date is fixed by the Board, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board may fix a new record date for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and in such case shall also fix as the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote in accordance herewith at the adjourned meeting.

In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board may fix, in advance, a record date, which shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board and which shall not be more than sixty (60) days prior to such action. If no such record date is fixed by the Board, then the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on the day on which the Board adopts the resolution relating thereto.

Section 1.9: List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote. The Corporation shall prepare, at least ten (10) days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (provided, however, if the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote is less than ten (10) days before the date of the meeting, the list shall reflect the stockholders entitled to vote as of the tenth (10th) day before the meeting date), arranged in alphabetical order and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, for a period of at least ten (10) days prior to the meeting, (a) on a reasonably accessible electronic network as permitted by applicable law (provided that the

 

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information required to gain access to the list is provided with the notice of the meeting), or (b) during ordinary business hours, at the principal place of business of the Corporation. If the meeting is held at a location where stockholders may attend in person, a list of stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting shall also be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof and may be inspected by any stockholder who is present at the meeting. If the meeting is held solely by means of remote communication, then the list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access the list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting. Except as otherwise provided by law, the stock ledger shall be the only evidence as to who are the stockholders entitled to examine the list of stockholders required by this Section 1.9 or to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of stockholders.

Section 1.10: Inspectors of Elections.

1.10.1 Applicability. Unless otherwise required by the Certificate of Incorporation or by applicable law, the following provisions of this Section 1.10 shall apply only if and when the Corporation has a class of voting stock that is: (a) listed on a national securities exchange; (b) authorized for quotation on an interdealer quotation system of a registered national securities association; or (c) held of record by more than two thousand (2,000) stockholders. In all other cases, observance of the provisions of this Section 1.10 shall be optional, and at the discretion of the Board.

1.10.2 Appointment. The Corporation shall, in advance of any meeting of stockholders, appoint one or more inspectors of election to act at the meeting and make a written report thereof. The Corporation may designate one or more persons as alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who fails to act. If no inspector or alternate is able to act at a meeting of stockholders, the person presiding at the meeting shall appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting.

1.10.3 Inspector’s Oath. Each inspector of election, before entering upon the discharge of his duties, shall take and sign an oath faithfully to execute the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of such inspector’s ability.

1.10.4 Duties of Inspectors. At a meeting of stockholders, the inspectors of election shall (a) ascertain the number of shares outstanding and the voting power of each share, (b) determine the shares represented at a meeting and the validity of proxies and ballots, (c) count all votes and ballots, (d) determine and retain for a reasonable period of time a record of the disposition of any challenges made to any determination by the inspectors, and (e) certify their determination of the number of shares represented at the meeting, and their count of all votes and ballots. The inspectors may appoint or retain other persons or entities to assist the inspectors in the performance of the duties of the inspectors.

1.10.5 Opening and Closing of Polls. The date and time of the opening and the closing of the polls for each matter upon which the stockholders will vote at a meeting shall be announced by the chairperson of the meeting at the meeting. No ballot, proxies or votes, nor any revocations thereof or changes thereto, shall be accepted by the inspectors after the closing of the polls unless the Court of Chancery upon application by a stockholder shall determine otherwise.

 

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1.10.6 Determinations. In determining the validity and counting of proxies and ballots, the inspectors shall be limited to an examination of the proxies, any envelopes submitted with those proxies, any information provided in connection with proxies pursuant to Section 211(a)(2)b.(i) of the DGCL, or in accordance with Sections 211(e) or 212(c)(2) of the DGCL, ballots and the regular books and records of the Corporation, except that the inspectors may consider other reliable information for the limited purpose of reconciling proxies and ballots submitted by or on behalf of banks, brokers, their nominees or similar persons which represent more votes than the holder of a proxy is authorized by the record owner to cast or more votes than the stockholder holds of record. If the inspectors consider other reliable information for the limited purpose permitted herein, the inspectors at the time they make their certification of their determinations pursuant to this Section 1.10 shall specify the precise information considered by them, including the person or persons from whom they obtained the information, when the information was obtained, the means by which the information was obtained and the basis for the inspectors’ belief that such information is accurate and reliable.

Section 1.11: Conduct of Meetings. The Board may adopt by resolution such rules and regulations for the conduct of the meeting of stockholders as it shall deem appropriate. Except to the extent inconsistent with such rules and regulations as adopted by the Board, the person presiding over any meeting of stockholders shall have the right and authority to convene and (for any or no reason) to recess and/or adjourn the meeting, to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such presiding person, are appropriate for the proper conduct of the meeting. Such rules, regulations or procedures, whether adopted by the Board or prescribed by the presiding person of the meeting, may include, without limitation, the following: (i) the establishment of an agenda or order of business for the meeting; (ii) rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present; (iii) limitations on attendance at or participation in the meeting to stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, their duly authorized and constituted proxies or such other persons as the presiding person of the meeting shall determine; (iv) restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof; (v) limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants; (vi) restricting the use of audio/video recording devices and cell phones; and (vii) complying with any state and local laws and regulations concerning safety and security. The presiding person at any meeting of stockholders, in addition to making any other determinations that may be appropriate to the conduct of the meeting, shall, if the facts warrant, determine and declare to the meeting that a matter or business was not properly brought before the meeting and if such presiding person should so determine, such presiding person shall so declare to the meeting and any such matter or business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted or considered. Unless and to the extent determined by the Board or the person presiding over the meeting, meetings of stockholders shall not be required to be held in accordance with the rules of parliamentary procedure.

Section 1.12: Notice of Stockholder Business; Nominations.

1.12.1 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.

(a) Nominations of persons for election to the Board and the proposal of other business to be considered by the stockholders may be made at an annual meeting of stockholders only: (i) pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of such meeting (or any supplement thereto), (ii) by or at the direction of the Board or any committee thereof or (iii) by any stockholder of the Corporation who

 

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was a stockholder of record at the time of giving of the notice provided for in this Section 1.12 (the “Record Stockholder”), who is entitled to vote at such meeting and who complies with the notice and other procedures set forth in this Section 1.12 in all applicable respects. For the avoidance of doubt, the foregoing clause (iii) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make nominations or propose business (other than business included in the Corporation’s proxy materials pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (such act, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, the “Exchange Act”)), at an annual meeting of stockholders, and such stockholder must fully comply with the notice and other procedures set forth in this Section 1.12 to make such nominations or propose business before an annual meeting.

(b) For nominations or other business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a Record Stockholder pursuant to Section 1.12.1(a) of these Bylaws:

(i) the Record Stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in writing to the Secretary of the Corporation and provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Section 1.12;

(ii) such other business (other than the nomination of persons for election to the Board) must otherwise be a proper matter for stockholder action;

(iii) if the Proposing Person (as defined below) has provided the Corporation with a Solicitation Notice (as defined below), such Proposing Person must, in the case of a proposal other than the nomination of persons for election to the Board, have delivered a proxy statement and form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Corporation’s voting shares required under applicable law to carry any such proposal, or, in the case of a nomination or nominations, have delivered a proxy statement and form of proxy to holders of a percentage of the Corporation’s voting shares reasonably believed by such Proposing Person to be sufficient to elect the nominee or nominees proposed to be nominated by such Record Stockholder, and must, in either case, have included in such materials the Solicitation Notice; and

(iv) if no Solicitation Notice relating thereto has been timely provided pursuant to this Section 1.12, the Proposing Person proposing such business or nomination must not have solicited a number of proxies sufficient to have required the delivery of such a Solicitation Notice under this Section 1.12.

To be timely, a Record Stockholder’s notice must be delivered to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on the ninetieth (90th) day nor earlier than 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on the one hundred and twentieth (120th) day prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting (except in the case of the Corporation’s first annual meeting following its initial public offering, for which such notice shall be timely if delivered in the same time period as if such meeting were a special meeting governed by Section 1.12.2 of these Bylaws); provided, however, that in the event that the date of the annual meeting is more than thirty (30) days before or more than seventy (70) days after such anniversary date, notice by the Record Stockholder to be timely must be so delivered (A) no earlier than 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on the one hundred and twentieth (120th) day prior to such annual meeting and (B) no later than 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on the later of the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such annual meeting or 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on the tenth (10th) day following the day on which Public Announcement (as defined below) of the date of such meeting is first made by the Corporation. In no event shall an adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for providing the Record Stockholder’s notice.

 

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(c) As to each person whom the Record Stockholder proposes to nominate for election or reelection as a director, in addition to the matters set forth in paragraph (e) below, such Record Stockholder’s notice shall set forth:

(i) the name, age, business address and residence address of such person;

(ii) the principal occupation or employment of such nominee;

(iii) the class, series and number of any shares of stock of the Corporation that are beneficially owned or owned of record by such person or any Associated Person (as defined in Section 1.12.4(c));

(iv) the date or dates such shares were acquired and the investment intent of such acquisition;

(v) all other information relating to such person that would be required to be disclosed in solicitations of proxies for election of directors in an election contest (even if an election contest is not involved), or would be otherwise required, in each case pursuant to and in accordance with Section 14(a) (or any successor provision) under the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder;

(vi) such person’s written consent to being named in the Corporation’s proxy statement as a nominee, to the public disclosure of information regarding or related to such person provided to the Corporation by such person or otherwise pursuant to this Section 1.12 and to serving as a director if elected;

(vii) whether such person meets the independence requirements of the stock exchange upon which the Corporation’s Common Stock is primarily traded;

(viii) a description of all direct and indirect compensation and other material monetary agreements, arrangements and understandings during the past three (3) years, and any other material relationships, between or among such Proposing Person or any of its respective affiliates and associates, on the one hand, and each proposed nominee, and his or her respective affiliates and associates, on the other hand, including all information that would be required to be disclosed pursuant to Rule 404 promulgated under Regulation S-K if the Proposing Person or any of its respective affiliates and associates were the “registrant” for purposes of such rule and the nominee were a director or executive officer of such registrant; and

(ix) a completed and signed questionnaire, representation and agreement required by Section 1.12.2 of these Bylaws.

(d) As to any business other than the nomination of a director or directors that the Record Stockholder proposes to bring before the meeting, in addition to the matters set forth in paragraph (e) below, such Record Stockholder’s notice shall set forth:

 

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(i) a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the meeting, the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and in the event that such business includes a proposal to amend the Bylaws, the text of the proposed amendment), the reasons for conducting such business at the meeting and any material interest in such business of such Proposing Person, including any anticipated benefit to any Proposing Person therefrom; and

(ii) a description of all agreements, arrangements and understandings between or among any such Proposing Person and any of its respective affiliates or associates, on the one hand, and any other person or persons, on the other hand, (including their names) in connection with the proposal of such business by such Proposing Person;

(e) As to each Proposing Person giving the notice, such Record Stockholder’s notice shall set forth:

(i) the current name and address of such Proposing Person, including, if applicable, their name and address as they appear on the Corporation’s stock ledger, if different;

(ii) the class or series and number of shares of stock of the Corporation that are directly or indirectly owned of record or beneficially owned by such Proposing Person, including any shares of any class or series of the Corporation as to which such Proposing Person has a right to acquire beneficial ownership at any time in the future;

(iii) whether and the extent to which any derivative interest in the Corporation’s equity securities (including without limitation any option, warrant, convertible security, stock appreciation right, or similar right with an exercise or conversion privilege or a settlement payment or mechanism at a price related to any class or series of shares of the Corporation or with a value derived in whole or in part from the value of any class or series of shares of the Corporation, whether or not such instrument or right shall be subject to settlement in the underlying class or series of shares of the Corporation or otherwise, and any cash-settled equity swap, total return swap, synthetic equity position or similar derivative arrangement (any of the foregoing, a “Derivative Instrument”), as well as any rights to dividends on the shares of any class or series of shares of the Corporation that are separated or separable from the underlying shares of the Corporation) or any short interest in any security of the Corporation (for purposes of this Bylaw a person shall be deemed to have a short interest in a security if such person directly or indirectly, through any contract, arrangement, understanding, relationship or otherwise, has the opportunity to profit or share in any profit derived from any increase or decrease in the value of the subject security, including through performance-related fees) is held directly or indirectly by or for the benefit of such Proposing Person, including without limitation whether and the extent to which any ongoing hedging or other transaction or series of transactions has been entered into by or on behalf of, or any other agreement, arrangement or understanding (including without limitation any short position or any borrowing or lending of shares) has been made, the effect or intent of which is to mitigate loss to or manage risk or benefit of share price changes for, or to increase or decrease the voting power of, such Proposing Person with respect to any share of stock of the Corporation (any of the foregoing, a “Short Interest”);

 

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(iv) any proportionate interest in shares of the Corporation or Derivative Instruments held, directly or indirectly, by a general or limited partnership in which such Proposing Person or any of its respective affiliates or associates is a general partner or, directly or indirectly, beneficially owns an interest in a general partner of such general or limited partnership;

(v) any direct or indirect material interest in any material contract or agreement with the Corporation, any affiliate of the Corporation or any Competitor (as defined below) (including, in any such case, any employment agreement, collective bargaining agreement or consulting agreement);

(vi) any significant equity interests or any Derivative Instruments or Short Interests in any Competitor held by such Proposing Person and/or any of its respective affiliates or associates;

(vii) any other material relationship between such Proposing Person, on the one hand, and the Corporation, any affiliate of the Corporation or any Competitor, on the other hand;

(viii) all information that would be required to be set forth in a Schedule 13D filed pursuant to Rule 13d-1(a) or an amendment pursuant to Rule 13d-2(a) if such a statement were required to be filed under the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder by such Proposing Person and/or any of its respective affiliates or associates;

(ix) any other information relating to such Proposing Person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies or consents by such Proposing Person in support of the business proposed to be brought before the meeting pursuant to Section 14(a) (or any successor provision) under the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder;

(x) such Proposing Person’s written consent to the public disclosure of information provided to the Corporation pursuant to this Section 1.12;

(xi) a complete written description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding (whether oral or in writing) (including any knowledge that another person or entity is Acting in Concert (as defined in Section 1.12.4(c)) with such Proposing Person) between or among such Proposing Person, any of its respective affiliates or associates and any other person Acting in Concert with any of the foregoing persons;

(xii) a representation that the Record Stockholder is a holder of record of stock of the Corporation entitled to vote at such meeting and intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to propose such business or nomination;

(xiii) a representation whether such Proposing Person intends (or is part of a group that intends) to deliver a proxy statement or form of proxy to holders of, in the case of a proposal, at least the percentage of the Corporation’s voting shares required under applicable law to carry the proposal or, in the case of a nomination or nominations, a sufficient number of holders of the Corporation’s voting shares to elect such nominee or nominees (an affirmative statement of such intent being a “Solicitation Notice”); and

 

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(xiv) any proxy, contract, arrangement, or relationship pursuant to which the Proposing Person has a right to vote, directly or indirectly, any shares of any security of the Corporation.

The disclosures to be made pursuant to the foregoing clauses (ii), (iii), (iv) and (vi) shall not include any information with respect to the ordinary course business activities of any broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee who is a Proposing Person solely as a result of being the stockholder directed to prepare and submit the notice required by these Bylaws on behalf of a beneficial owner.

(f) A stockholder providing written notice required by this Section 1.12 shall update such notice in writing, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice is true and correct in all material respects as of (i) the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting and (ii) 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on the tenth (10th) business day prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof. In the case of an update pursuant to clause (i) of the foregoing sentence, such update shall be received by the Secretary of the Corporation at the principal executive office of the Corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting, and in the case of an update and supplement pursuant to clause (ii) of the foregoing sentence, such update and supplement shall be received by the Secretary of the Corporation at the principal executive office of the Corporation not later than eight (8) business days prior to the date for the meeting and, if practicable, any adjournment or postponement thereof (and, if not practicable, on the first practicable date prior to the date to which the meeting has been adjourned or postponed). For the avoidance of doubt, the obligation to update as set forth in this paragraph shall not limit the Corporation’s rights with respect to any deficiencies in any notice provided by a stockholder, extend any applicable deadlines hereunder or enable or be deemed to permit a stockholder who has previously submitted notice hereunder to amend or update any proposal or nomination or to submit any new proposal, including by changing or adding nominees, matters, business and/or resolutions proposed to be brought before a meeting of the stockholders.

(g) Notwithstanding anything in Section 1.12 or any other provision of the Bylaws to the contrary, any person who has been determined by a majority of the Whole Board to have violated Section 2.11 of these Bylaws or a Board Confidentiality Policy (as defined below) while serving as a director of the Corporation in the preceding five (5) years shall be ineligible to be nominated or be qualified to serve as a member of the Board, absent a prior waiver for such nomination or qualification approved by two-thirds of the Whole Board.

1.12.2 Submission of Questionnaire, Representation and Agreement. To be eligible to be a nominee of any stockholder for election or reelection as a director of the Corporation, the person proposed to be nominated must deliver (in accordance with the time periods prescribed for delivery of notice under Section 1.12 of these Bylaws) to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation a completed and signed questionnaire in the form required by the Corporation (which form the stockholder shall request in writing from the Secretary of the Corporation and which the Secretary shall provide to such stockholder within ten days of receiving such request) with respect to the background and qualification of such person to serve as a director of the Corporation and the background of any other person or entity on whose behalf, directly or indirectly, the nomination is being made and a signed representation and agreement (in the form available from the Secretary upon written request) that such person: (a) is not and will not become a party to (i)

 

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any agreement, arrangement or understanding with, and has not given any commitment or assurance to, any person or entity as to how such person, if elected as a director of the Corporation, will act or vote on any issue or question (a “Voting Commitment”) that has not been disclosed to the Corporation or (ii) any Voting Commitment that could limit or interfere with such person’s ability to comply, if elected as a director of the Corporation, with such person’s fiduciary duties under applicable law, (b) is not and will not become a party to any Compensation Arrangement (as defined below) that has not been disclosed therein, (c) if elected as a director of the Corporation, will comply with all informational and similar requirements of applicable insurance policies and laws and regulations in connection with service or action as a director of the Corporation, (d) if elected as a director of the Corporation, will comply with all corporate governance, conflict of interest, stock ownership requirements, confidentiality and trading policies and guidelines of the Corporation publicly disclosed from time to time, (e) if elected as a director of the Corporation, will act in the best interests of the Corporation and its stockholders and not in the interests of individual constituencies, (f) consents to being named as a nominee in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-4(d) under the Exchange Act and any associated proxy card of the Corporation and agrees to serve if elected as a director and (g) intends to serve as a director for the full term for which such individual is to stand for election.

1.12.3 Special Meetings of Stockholders. Only such business shall be conducted at a special meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of such meeting. Nominations of persons for election to the Board may be made at a special meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of such meeting (a) by or at the direction of the Board or any committee thereof or (b) provided that the Board has determined that directors shall be elected at such meeting, by any stockholder of the Corporation who is a stockholder of record at the time of giving of notice of the special meeting, who shall be entitled to vote at the meeting and who complies with the notice and other procedures set forth in this Section 1.12 in all applicable respects. In the event the Corporation calls a special meeting of stockholders for the purpose of electing one or more directors to the Board, any such stockholder may nominate a person or persons (as the case may be), for election to such position(s) as specified in the Corporation’s notice of meeting, if the stockholder’s notice required by Section 1.12.1(b) of these Bylaws shall be delivered to the Secretary of the Corporation at the principal executive offices of the Corporation (i) no earlier than the one hundred and twentieth (120th) day prior to such special meeting and (ii) no later than 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on the later of the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such special meeting or the tenth (10th) day following the day on which Public Announcement is first made of the date of the special meeting and of the nominees proposed by the Board to be elected at such meeting. In no event shall an adjournment or postponement of a special meeting commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for providing such notice.

1.12.4 General.

(a) Except as otherwise expressly provided in any applicable rule or regulation promulgated under the Exchange Act, only such persons who are nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 1.12 shall be eligible to be elected at a meeting of stockholders and serve as directors and only such business shall be conducted at a meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 1.12. Except as otherwise provided by law or these Bylaws, the chairperson of the meeting shall have the power and duty to determine whether a nomination or any other

 

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business proposed to be brought before the meeting was made or proposed, as the case may be, in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 1.12 and, if any proposed nomination or business is not in compliance herewith, to declare that such defective proposal or nomination shall be disregarded. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 1.12, unless otherwise required by law, if the stockholder (or a Qualified Representative of the stockholder (as defined below)) does not appear at the annual or special meeting of stockholders of the Corporation to present a nomination or proposed business, such nomination shall be disregarded and such proposed business shall not be transacted, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation.

(b) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 1.12, a stockholder shall also comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder with respect to the matters set forth herein. Nothing in this Section 1.12 shall be deemed to affect any rights of (a) stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act or (b) the holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect directors pursuant to any applicable provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation.

(c) For purposes of these Bylaws the following definitions shall apply:

(A) a person shall be deemed to be “Acting in Concert” with another person if such person knowingly acts (whether or not pursuant to an express agreement, arrangement or understanding) in concert with, or toward a common goal relating to the management, governance or control of the Corporation in substantial parallel with, such other person where (1) each person is conscious of the other person’s conduct or intent and this awareness is an element in their decision-making processes and (2) at least one additional factor suggests that such persons intend to act in concert or in substantial parallel, which such additional factors may include, without limitation, exchanging information (whether publicly or privately), attending meetings, conducting discussions or making or soliciting invitations to act in concert or in substantial parallel; provided that a person shall not be deemed to be Acting in Concert with any other person solely as a result of the solicitation or receipt of revocable proxies or consents from such other person in response to a solicitation made pursuant to, and in accordance with, Section 14(a) (or any successor provision) of the Exchange Act by way of a proxy or consent solicitation statement filed on Schedule 14A. A person Acting in Concert with another person shall be deemed to be Acting in Concert with any third party who is also Acting in Concert with such other person;

(B) affiliate” and “associate” shall have the meanings ascribed thereto in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”); provided, however, that the term “partner” as used in the definition of “associate” shall not include any limited partner that is not involved in the management of the relevant partnership;

(C) “Associated Person” shall mean with respect to any subject stockholder or other person (including any proposed nominee) (1) any person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by or under common control with such

 

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stockholder or other person, (2) any beneficial owner of shares of stock of the Corporation owned of record or beneficially by such stockholder or other person, (3) any associate of such stockholder or other person, and (4) any person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by or under common control or Acting in Concert with any such Associated Person;

(D) “Compensation Arrangement” shall mean any direct or indirect compensatory payment or other financial agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or entity other than the Corporation, including any agreement, arrangement or understanding with respect to any direct or indirect compensation, reimbursement or indemnification in connection with candidacy, nomination, service or action as a nominee or as a director of the Corporation;

(E) “Competitor” shall mean any entity that provides products or services that compete with or are alternatives to the principal products produced or services provided by the Corporation or its affiliates;

(F) “Proposing Person” shall mean (1) the Record Stockholder providing the notice of business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting or nomination of persons for election to the Board at a stockholder meeting, (2) the beneficial owner or beneficial owners, if different, on whose behalf the notice of business proposed to be brought before the annual meeting or nomination of persons for election to the Board at a stockholder meeting is made, and (3) any Associated Person on whose behalf the notice of business proposed to be brought before the annual meeting or nomination of persons for election to the Board at a stockholder meeting is made;

(G) “Public Announcement” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by a national news service or in a document publicly filed by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act; and

(H) to be considered a “Qualified Representative” of a stockholder, a person must be a duly authorized officer, manager, trustee or partner of such stockholder or must be authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder to act for such stockholder as a proxy at the meeting of stockholders and such person must produce such writing or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction thereof, at the meeting. The Secretary of the Corporation, or any other person who shall be appointed to serve as secretary of the meeting, may require, on behalf of the Corporation, reasonable and appropriate documentation to verify the status of a person purporting to be a “Qualified Representative” for purposes hereof.

ARTICLE II: BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Section 2.1: Number; Qualifications. The total number of directors constituting the Whole Board shall be fixed from time to time in the manner set forth in the Certificate of Incorporation and the term “Whole Board” shall have the meaning specified in the Certificate of

 

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Incorporation. No decrease in the authorized number of directors constituting the Whole Board shall shorten the term of any incumbent director. Directors need not be stockholders of the Corporation.

Section 2.2: Election; Resignation; Removal; Vacancies. Election of directors need not be by written ballot. Each director shall hold office until the annual meeting at which such director’s term expires and until such director’s successor is elected and qualified or until such director’s earlier death, resignation, disqualification or removal. Any director may resign by delivering a resignation in writing or by electronic transmission to the Corporation at its principal office or to the Chairperson of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, or the Secretary. Such resignation shall be effective upon delivery unless it is specified to be effective at a later time or upon the happening of an event. Subject to the special rights of holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect directors, directors may be removed only as provided by the Certificate of Incorporation and applicable law. All vacancies occurring in the Board and any newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors shall be filled in the manner set forth in the Certificate of Incorporation.

Section 2.3: Regular Meetings. Regular meetings of the Board may be held at such places, within or without the State of Delaware, and at such times as the Board may from time to time determine. Notice of regular meetings need not be given if the date, times and places thereof are fixed by resolution of the Board.

Section 2.4: Special Meetings. Special meetings of the Board may be called by the Chairperson of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the Lead Independent Director or a majority of the members of the Board then in office and may be held at any time, date or place, within or without the State of Delaware, as the person or persons calling the meeting shall fix. Notice of the time, date and place of such meeting shall be given, orally, in writing or by electronic transmission (including electronic mail), by the person or persons calling the meeting to all directors at least four (4) days before the meeting if the notice is mailed, or at least twenty-four (24) hours before the meeting if such notice is given by telephone, hand delivery, telegram, telex, mailgram, facsimile, electronic mail or other means of electronic transmission; provided, however, that if, under the circumstances, the Chairperson of the Board, the Lead Independent Director or the Chief Executive Officer calling a special meeting deems that more immediate action is necessary or appropriate, notice may be delivered on the day of such special meeting. Unless otherwise indicated in the notice, any and all business may be transacted at a special meeting.

Section 2.5: Remote Meetings Permitted. Members of the Board, or any committee of the Board, may participate in a meeting of the Board or such committee by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation in a meeting pursuant to conference telephone or other communications equipment shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.

Section 2.6: Quorum; Vote Required for Action. At all meetings of the Board, a majority of the Whole Board shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. If a quorum shall fail to attend any meeting, a majority of those present may adjourn the meeting to another place, date or time. Except as otherwise provided herein or in the Certificate of Incorporation, or required by law, the vote of a majority of the directors present at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board.

 

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Section 2.7: Organization. Meetings of the Board shall be presided over by (a) the Chairperson of the Board, or (b) in the absence of such person, the Lead Independent Director, or (c) in such person’s absence, by the Chief Executive Officer, or (d) in such person’s absence, by a chairperson chosen by the Board at the meeting. The Secretary shall act as secretary of the meeting, but in such person’s absence the chairperson of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting.

Section 2.8: Unanimous Action by Directors in Lieu of a Meeting. Any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board, or of any committee thereof, may be taken without a meeting if all members of the Board or such committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission, and the writing or writings or electronic transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board or committee, as applicable. Such filing shall be in paper form if the minutes are maintained in paper form and shall be in electronic form if the minutes are maintained in electronic form.

Section 2.9: Powers. Except as otherwise provided by the Certificate of Incorporation or the DGCL, the business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board.

Section 2.10: Compensation of Directors. Members of the Board, as such, may receive, pursuant to a resolution of the Board, fees and other compensation for their services as directors, including without limitation their services as members of committees of the Board.

Section 2.11: Confidentiality.    Each director shall maintain the confidentiality of, and shall not share with any third party person or entity (including third parties that originally sponsored, nominated or designated such director (the “Sponsoring Party”)), any non-public information learned in their capacities as directors, including communications among Board members in their capacities as directors. The Board may adopt a board confidentiality policy further implementing and interpreting this bylaw (a “Board Confidentiality Policy”). All directors are required to comply with this bylaw and any such Board Confidentiality Policy unless such director or the Sponsoring Party for such director has entered into a specific written agreement with the Corporation, in either case as approved by the Board, providing otherwise with respect to such confidential information.

ARTICLE III: COMMITTEES

Section 3.1: Committees. The Board may designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the Corporation. The Board may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of the committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting of such committee who are not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board to act at the meeting in place of any such absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent provided in a resolution of the Board, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to be affixed to all papers that may require it; but no such committee shall have the power or authority in reference to the following matters: (a) approving, adopting, or

 

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recommending to the stockholders any action or matter (other than the election or removal of members of the Board) expressly required by the DGCL to be submitted to stockholders for approval or (b) adopting, amending or repealing any bylaw of the Corporation.

Section 3.2: Committee Rules. Each committee shall keep records of its proceedings and make such reports as the Board may from time to time request. Unless the Board otherwise provides, each committee designated by the Board may make, alter and repeal rules for the conduct of its business. In the absence of such rules, each committee shall conduct its business in the same manner as the Board conducts its business pursuant to Article II of these Bylaws. Except as otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, these Bylaws or the resolution of the Board designating the committee, any committee may create one or more subcommittees, each subcommittee to consist of one or more members of the committee, and may delegate to any such subcommittee any or all of the powers and authority of the committee.

ARTICLE IV: OFFICERS; CHAIRPERSON; LEAD INDEPENDENT DIRECTOR

Section 4.1: Generally. The officers of the Corporation shall consist of a Chief Executive Officer (who may be the Chairperson of the Board or the President), a President, a Secretary and a Treasurer and may consist of such other officers, including, without limitation, a Chief Financial Officer, and one or more Vice Presidents, as may from time to time be appointed by the Board. All officers shall be elected by the Board; provided, however, that the Board may empower the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation to appoint any officer other than the Chief Executive Officer, the President, the Chief Financial Officer or the Treasurer. Except as otherwise provided by law, by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, each officer shall hold office until such officer’s successor is duly elected and qualified or until such officer’s earlier resignation, death, disqualification or removal. Any number of offices may be held by the same person. Any officer may resign by delivering a resignation in writing or by electronic transmission to the Corporation at its principal office or to the Chairperson of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, or the Secretary. Such resignation shall be effective upon delivery unless it is specified to be effective at some later time or upon the happening of some later event. Any vacancy occurring in any office of the Corporation by death, resignation, removal or otherwise may be filled by the Board and the Board may, in its discretion, leave unfilled, for such period as it may determine, any offices. Each such successor shall hold office for the unexpired term of such officer’s predecessor and until a successor is duly elected and qualified or until such officer’s earlier resignation, death, disqualification or removal.

Section 4.2: Chief Executive Officer. Subject to the control of the Board and such supervisory powers, if any, as may be given by the Board, the powers and duties of the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation are:

(a) to act as the general manager and, subject to the control of the Board, to have general supervision, direction and control of the business and affairs of the Corporation;

(b) subject to Section 1.6 of these Bylaws, to preside at all meetings of the stockholders;

 

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(c) subject to Section 1.2 of these Bylaws, to call special meetings of the stockholders to be held at such times and, subject to the limitations prescribed by law or by these Bylaws, at such places as he or she shall deem proper; and

(d) to affix the signature of the Corporation to all deeds, conveyances, mortgages, guarantees, leases, obligations, bonds, certificates and other papers and instruments in writing which have been authorized by the Board or which, in the judgment of the Chief Executive Officer, should be executed on behalf of the Corporation; to sign certificates for shares of stock of the Corporation (if any); and, subject to the direction of the Board, to have general charge of the property of the Corporation and to supervise and control all officers, agents and employees of the Corporation.

The person holding the office of President shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation unless the Board shall designate another officer to be the Chief Executive Officer.

Section 4.3: Chairperson of the Board. Subject to the provisions of Section 2.7 of these Bylaws, the Chairperson of the Board shall have the power to preside at all meetings of the Board and shall have such other powers and duties as provided in these Bylaws and as the Board may from time to time prescribe. The Chairperson of the Board may or may not be an officer of the Corporation.

Section 4.4: Lead Independent Director. The Board may, in its discretion, elect a lead independent director from among its members that are Independent Directors (as defined below) (such director, the “Lead Independent Director). The Lead Independent Director shall preside at all meetings at which the Chairperson of the Board is not present and shall exercise such other powers and duties as may from time to time be assigned to him or her by the Board or as prescribed by these Bylaws. For purposes of these Bylaws, “Independent Director” has the meaning ascribed to such term under the rules of the exchange upon which the Corporation’s Common Stock is primarily traded.

Section 4.5: President. The person holding the office of Chief Executive Officer shall be the President of the Corporation unless the Board shall have designated one individual as the President and a different individual as the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation. Subject to the provisions of these Bylaws and to the direction of the Board, and subject to the supervisory powers of the Chief Executive Officer (if the Chief Executive Officer is an officer other than the President), and subject to such supervisory powers and authority as may be given by the Board to the Chairperson of the Board, and/or to any other officer, the President shall have the responsibility for the general management and control of the business and affairs of the Corporation and the general supervision and direction of all of the officers, employees and agents of the Corporation (other than the Chief Executive Officer, if the Chief Executive Officer is an officer other than the President) and shall perform all duties and have all powers that are commonly incident to the office of President or that are delegated to the President by the Board.

Section 4.6: Chief Financial Officer. The person holding the office of Chief Financial Officer shall be the Treasurer of the Corporation unless the Board shall have designated another officer as the Treasurer of the Corporation. Subject to the direction of the Board and the Chief Executive Officer, the Chief Financial Officer shall perform all duties and have all powers that are

 

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commonly incident to the office of Chief Financial Officer, or as the Board or the Chief Executive Officer may from time to time prescribe.

Section 4.7: Treasurer. The person holding the office of Treasurer shall have custody of all monies and securities of the Corporation. The Treasurer shall make such disbursements of the funds of the Corporation as are authorized and shall render from time to time an account of all such transactions. The Treasurer shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers as are commonly incident to the office of Treasurer, or as the Board or the Chief Executive Officer may from time to time prescribe.

Section 4.8: Vice President. Each Vice President shall have all such powers and duties as are commonly incident to the office of Vice President or that are delegated to him or her by the Board or the Chief Executive Officer. A Vice President may be designated by the Board to perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Chief Executive Officer or President in the event of the Chief Executive Officer’s or President’s absence or disability.

Section 4.9: Secretary. The Secretary shall issue or cause to be issued all authorized notices for, and shall keep, or cause to be kept, minutes of all meetings of the stockholders and the Board. The Secretary shall have charge of the corporate minute books and similar records and shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as are commonly incident to the office of Secretary, or as the Board or the Chief Executive Officer may from time to time prescribe.

Section 4.10: Delegation of Authority. The Board may from time to time delegate the powers or duties of any officer of the Corporation to any other officers or agents of the Corporation, notwithstanding any provision hereof.

Section 4.11: Removal. Any officer of the Corporation shall serve at the pleasure of the Board and may be removed at any time, with or without cause, by the Board; provided that if the Board has empowered the Chief Executive Officer to appoint any officer of the Corporation, then such officer may also be removed by the Chief Executive Officer. Such removal shall be without prejudice to the contractual rights of such officer, if any, with the Corporation.

ARTICLE V: STOCK

Section 5.1: Certificates; Uncertificated Shares. The shares of capital stock of the Corporation shall be uncertificated shares; provided, however, that the resolution of the Board that the shares of capital stock of the Corporation shall be uncertificated shares shall not apply to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the Corporation (or the transfer agent or registrar, as the case may be). Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Board may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of its stock shall be certificated shares. Every holder of stock represented by certificates shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by, or in the name of the Corporation, by any two authorized officers of the Corporation (it being understood that each of the Chairperson of the Board, the Vice-Chairperson of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the President, any Vice President, the Treasurer, any Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary and any Assistant Secretary shall be an authorized officer for such purpose) , representing the number of shares registered in certificate form. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be a facsimile. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be

 

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such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Corporation with the same effect as if such person were an officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.

Section 5.2: Lost, Stolen or Destroyed Stock Certificates; Issuance of New Certificates or Uncertificated Shares. The Corporation may issue a new certificate of stock or uncertificated shares in the place of any certificate previously issued by it, alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be lost, stolen or destroyed, and the Corporation may require the owner of the lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, or such owner’s legal representative, to agree to indemnify the Corporation and/or to give the Corporation a bond sufficient to indemnify it, against any claim that may be made against it on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of any such certificate or the issuance of such new certificate or uncertificated shares.

Section 5.3: Other Regulations. Subject to applicable law, the Certificate of Incorporation and these Bylaws, the issue, transfer, conversion and registration of shares represented by certificates and of uncertificated shares shall be governed by such other regulations as the Board may establish.

ARTICLE VI: INDEMNIFICATION

Section 6.1: Indemnification of Officers and Directors. Each person who was or is made a party to, or is threatened to be made a party to, or is involved in any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative, legislative or any other type whatsoever (a “Proceeding”), by reason of the fact that such person (or a person of whom such person is the legal representative), is or was a director or officer of the Corporation or, while serving as a director or officer of the Corporation, is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee, agent or trustee of another corporation, or of a partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, including service with respect to employee benefit plans (for purposes of this Article VI, an “Indemnitee”), shall be indemnified and held harmless by the Corporation to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL as the same exists or may hereafter be amended (but, in the case of any such amendment, only to the extent that such amendment permits the Corporation to provide broader indemnification rights than such law permitted the Corporation to provide prior to such amendment), against all expenses, liability and loss (including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines, ERISA excise taxes and penalties and amounts paid or to be paid in settlement) reasonably incurred or suffered by such Indemnitee in connection therewith, provided such Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner that the Indemnitee reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal Proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe the Indemnitee’s conduct was unlawful. Such indemnification shall continue as to an Indemnitee who has ceased to be a director or officer of the Corporation and shall inure to the benefit of such Indemnitees’ heirs, executors and administrators. Notwithstanding the foregoing, subject to Section 6.5 of these Bylaws, the Corporation shall indemnify any such Indemnitee seeking indemnity in connection with a Proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such Indemnitee only if such Proceeding (or part thereof) was authorized by the Board or such indemnification is authorized by an agreement approved by the Board.

 

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Section 6.2: Advance of Expenses. The Corporation shall pay all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by an Indemnitee in defending any Proceeding in advance of its final disposition; provided, however, that if the DGCL then so requires, the advancement of such expenses shall be made only upon delivery to the Corporation of an undertaking, by or on behalf of such Indemnitee, to repay such amounts if it shall ultimately be determined that such Indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified under this Article VI or otherwise.

Section 6.3: Non-Exclusivity of Rights. The rights conferred on any person in this Article VI shall not be exclusive of any other right that such person may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, provision of the Certificate of Incorporation, Bylaws, agreement, vote or consent of stockholders or disinterested directors, or otherwise. Additionally, nothing in this Article VI shall limit the ability of the Corporation, in its discretion, to indemnify or advance expenses to persons whom the Corporation is not obligated to indemnify or advance expenses pursuant to this Article VI.

Section 6.4: Indemnification Contracts. The Board is authorized to cause the Corporation to enter into indemnification contracts with any director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation, or any person serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee, agent or trustee of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, including employee benefit plans, providing indemnification or advancement rights to such person. Such rights may be greater than those provided in this Article VI.

Section 6.5: Right of Indemnitee to Bring Suit. The following shall apply to the extent not in conflict with any indemnification contract provided for in Section 6.4 of these Bylaws.

6.5.1 Right to Bring Suit. If a claim under Section 6.1 or 6.2 of these Bylaws is not paid in full by the Corporation within sixty (60) days after a written claim has been received by the Corporation, except in the case of a claim for an advancement of expenses, in which case the applicable period shall be twenty (20) days, the Indemnitee may at any time thereafter bring suit against the Corporation to recover the unpaid amount of the claim. If successful in whole or in part in any such suit, or in a suit brought by the Corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the Indemnitee shall be entitled to be paid, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the expense of prosecuting or defending such suit. In any suit brought by the Indemnitee to enforce a right to indemnification hereunder (but not in a suit brought by the Indemnitee to enforce a right to an advancement of expenses) it shall be a defense that the Indemnitee has not met any applicable standard of conduct which makes it permissible under the DGCL (or other applicable law) for the Corporation to indemnify the Indemnitee for the amount claimed.

6.5.2 Effect of Determination. The absence of a determination prior to the commencement of such suit that indemnification of the Indemnitee is proper in the circumstances because the Indemnitee has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in applicable law shall not create a presumption that the Indemnitee has not met the applicable standard of conduct or, in the case of such a suit brought by the Indemnitee, be a defense to such suit.

6.5.3 Burden of Proof. In any suit brought by the Indemnitee to enforce a right to indemnification or to an advancement of expenses hereunder, or brought by the Corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the burden of proving that the Indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified, or to such advancement of expenses, under this Article VI, or otherwise, shall be on the Corporation.

 

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Section 6.6: Nature of Rights. The rights conferred upon Indemnitees in this Article VI shall be contract rights and such rights shall continue as to an Indemnitee who has ceased to be a director, officer or trustee and shall inure to the benefit of the Indemnitee’s heirs, executors and administrators. Any amendment, repeal or modification of any provision of this Article VI that adversely affects any right of an Indemnitee or an Indemnitee’s successors shall be prospective only, and shall not adversely affect any right or protection conferred on a person pursuant to this Article VI with respect to any Proceeding involving any occurrence or alleged occurrence of any action or omission to act that took place prior to such amendment, repeal or modification.

Section 6.7: Insurance. The Corporation may purchase and maintain insurance, at its expense, to protect itself and any director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation or another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any expense, liability or loss, whether or not the Corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such expense, liability or loss under the DGCL.

ARTICLE VII: NOTICES

Section 7.1: Notice.

7.1.1 Form and Delivery. Except as otherwise specifically required in these Bylaws (including, without limitation, Section 7.1.2 of these Bylaws) or by applicable law, all notices required to be given pursuant to these Bylaws may (a) in every instance in connection with any delivery to a member of the Board, be effectively given by hand delivery (including use of a delivery service), by depositing such notice in the mail, postage prepaid, or by sending such notice by overnight express courier, facsimile, electronic mail or other form of electronic transmission and (b) be effectively delivered to a stockholder when given by hand delivery, by depositing such notice in the mail, postage prepaid or, if specifically consented to by the stockholder as described in Section 7.1.2 of these Bylaws, by sending such notice by facsimile, electronic mail or other form of electronic transmission. Any such notice shall be addressed to the person to whom notice is to be given at such person’s address as it appears on the records of the Corporation. The notice shall be deemed given (a) in the case of hand delivery, when received by the person to whom notice is to be given or by any person accepting such notice on behalf of such person, (b) in the case of delivery by mail, upon deposit in the mail, (c) in the case of delivery by overnight express courier, when dispatched, and (d) in the case of delivery via facsimile, electronic mail or other form of electronic transmission, at the time provided in Section 7.1.2 of these Bylaws.

7.1.2 Electronic Transmission. Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders, any notice to stockholders given by the Corporation under any provision of the DGCL, the Certificate of Incorporation, or these Bylaws shall be effective if given by a form of electronic transmission consented to by the stockholder to whom the notice is given in accordance with Section 232 of the DGCL. Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the Corporation. Any such consent shall be deemed revoked if (a) the Corporation is unable to deliver by electronic transmission two consecutive notices given by the Corporation in accordance with such consent and (b) such inability becomes known to the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Corporation or to the

 

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transfer agent, or other person responsible for the giving of notice; provided, however, the inadvertent failure to treat such inability as a revocation shall not invalidate any meeting or other action. Notice given pursuant to this Section 7.1.2 shall be deemed given: (i) if by facsimile telecommunication, when directed to a number at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice; (ii) if by electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice; (iii) if by a posting on an electronic network together with separate notice to the stockholder of such specific posting, upon the later of such posting and the giving of such separate notice; and (iv) if by any other form of electronic transmission, when directed to the stockholder.

7.1.3 Affidavit of Giving Notice. An affidavit of the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary or of the transfer agent or other agent of the Corporation that the notice has been given in writing or by a form of electronic transmission shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.

Section 7.2: Waiver of Notice. Whenever notice is required to be given under any provision of the DGCL, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, a written waiver of notice, signed by the person entitled to notice, or waiver by electronic transmission by such person, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the stockholders, directors or members of a committee of directors need be specified in any waiver of notice.

ARTICLE VIII: INTERESTED DIRECTORS

Section 8.1: Interested Directors. No contract or transaction between the Corporation and one or more of its members of the Board or officers, or between the Corporation and any other corporation, partnership, association or other organization in which one or more of its directors or officers are members of the board of directors or officers, or have a financial interest, shall be void or voidable solely for this reason, or solely because the director or officer is present at or participates in the meeting of the Board or committee thereof that authorizes the contract or transaction, or solely because his, her or their votes are counted for such purpose, if: (a) the material facts as to his, her or their relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the Board or the committee, and the Board or committee in good faith authorizes the contract or transaction by the affirmative votes of a majority of the disinterested directors, even though the disinterested directors be less than a quorum; (b) the material facts as to his, her or their relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the stockholders entitled to vote thereon, and the contract or transaction is specifically approved in good faith by vote of the stockholders; or (c) the contract or transaction is fair as to the Corporation as of the time it is authorized, approved or ratified by the Board, a committee thereof, or the stockholders.

Section 8.2: Quorum. Interested directors may be counted in determining the presence of a quorum at a meeting of the Board or of a committee which authorizes the contract or transaction.

 

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ARTICLE IX: MISCELLANEOUS

Section 9.1: Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be determined by resolution of the Board.

Section 9.2: Seal. The Board may provide for a corporate seal, which may have the name of the Corporation inscribed thereon and shall otherwise be in such form as may be approved from time to time by the Board.

Section 9.3: Form of Records. Any records administered by or on behalf of the Corporation in the regular course of its business, including its stock ledger, books of account and minute books, may be kept on or by means of, or be in the form of, any other information storage device, method or one or more electronic networks or databases (including one or more distributed electronic networks or databases), electronic or otherwise, provided that the records so kept can be converted into clearly legible paper form within a reasonable time and otherwise comply with the DGCL. The Corporation shall so convert any records so kept upon the request of any person entitled to inspect such records pursuant to any provision of the DGCL.

Section 9.4: Reliance Upon Books and Records. A member of the Board, or a member of any committee designated by the Board shall, in the performance of such person’s duties, be fully protected in relying in good faith upon the books and records of the Corporation and upon such information, opinions, reports or statements presented to the Corporation by any of the Corporation’s officers or employees, or committees of the Board, or by any other person as to matters the member reasonably believes are within such other person’s professional or expert competence and who has been selected with reasonable care by or on behalf of the Corporation.

Section 9.5: Certificate of Incorporation Governs. In the event of any conflict between the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws, the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation shall govern.

Section 9.6: Severability. If any provision of these Bylaws shall be held to be invalid, illegal, unenforceable or in conflict with the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, then such provision shall nonetheless be enforced to the maximum extent possible consistent with such holding and the remaining provisions of these Bylaws (including without limitation, all portions of any section of these Bylaws containing any such provision held to be invalid, illegal, unenforceable or in conflict with the Certificate of Incorporation, that are not themselves invalid, illegal, unenforceable or in conflict with the Certificate of Incorporation) shall remain in full force and effect.

Section 9.7: Time Periods. In applying any provision of these Bylaws which requires that an act be done or not be done a specified number of days prior to an event or that an act be done during a period of a specified number of days prior to an event, calendar days shall be used, the day of the doing of the act shall be excluded, and the day of the event shall be included.

ARTICLE X: AMENDMENT

Notwithstanding any other provision of these Bylaws, any alteration, amendment or repeal of these Bylaws, and any adoption of new Bylaws, shall require the approval of the Board or the stockholders of the Corporation as expressly provided in the Certificate of Incorporation.

 

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ARTICLE XI: EXCLUSIVE FORUM

Unless the Corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the federal district courts of the United States shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act.

Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring or holding any interest in any security of the Corporation shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the provisions of this Article XI.

 

-24-


CERTIFICATION OF RESTATED BYLAWS

OF

STOKE THERAPEUTICS, INC.

(a Delaware corporation)

I, Robin A. Walker, certify that I am the Secretary of Stoke Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Corporation”), that I am duly authorized to make and deliver this certification, that the attached Bylaws are a true and complete copy of the Restated Bylaws of the Corporation, as amended to date, in effect as of the date of this certificate.

Dated: July 9, 2020

 

/s/ Robin A. Walker
Robin A. Walker
Senior Vice President, Chief Legal Officer, Chief Compliance Officer and Secretary
EX-4.3

Exhibit 4.3

FORM OF DEBT SECURITY

[Face of Security]

STOKE THERAPEUTICS, INC.

[If applicable, insert—FOR PURPOSES OF THE ORIGINAL ISSUE DISCOUNT PROVISIONS OF THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE OF 1986, THE ISSUE PRICE OF THIS SECURITY IS                 % OF ITS PRINCIPAL AMOUNT AT STATED MATURITY SET FORTH BELOW (ITS “PRINCIPAL AMOUNT”), THE AMOUNT OF ORIGINAL ISSUE DISCOUNT IS                 % OF ITS PRINCIPAL AMOUNT, THE YIELD TO MATURITY IS                 % AND THE ISSUE DATE IS                ]

[IF THE SECURITY IS A GLOBAL SECURITY, INSERT—THIS NOTE IS A GLOBAL SECURITY. IT IS EXCHANGEABLE FOR NOTES REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF A PERSON OTHER THAN THE DEPOSITARY (AS HEREINAFTER DEFINED) OR ITS NOMINEE ONLY IN THE LIMITED CIRCUMSTANCES HEREINAFTER DESCRIBED AND MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED EXCEPT AS A WHOLE BY THE DEPOSITARY TO A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO THE DEPOSITARY OR ANOTHER NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY THE DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO A SUCCESSOR OF THE DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF SUCH SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY.]

 

No.

   $
     CUSIP No.

Stoke Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (herein called the “Company”, which term includes any successor corporation under the Indenture referred to on the reverse hereof), for value received, hereby promises to pay to, or registered assigns, the principal sum of                  Dollars on                  [if Security is to bear interest prior to maturity, insert—, and to pay interest thereon from                  or from the most recent Interest Payment Date to which interest has been paid or duly provided for, semi-annually on                  and                  in each year, commencing                 , at the rate of                 % per annum, until the principal hereof is paid or made available for payment [if applicable, insert—, provided that any principal and premium, and any such installment of interest, which is overdue shall bear interest at the rate of                % per annum (to the extent that the payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable), from the dates such amounts are due until they are paid or made available for payment, and such interest shall be payable on demand]]. The interest so payable, and punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date will, as provided in such Indenture, be paid to the Person in whose name this Security (or one or more predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the record date for such interest, which shall be the                  or                  (whether or not a Business Day), as the case may be, next preceding such Interest Payment Date. Any such interest not so punctually paid or duly provided for will forthwith cease to be payable to the Holder on such record date and may either be paid to the Person at the time this Security (or one or more predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such defaulted interest to be fixed by the Trustee, notice whereof shall be given to Holders of Securities of this series not less than 10 days prior to such special record date, or be paid at any time in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which the Securities of this series may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, all as more fully provided in said Indenture. [If the Security is not to bear interest prior to maturity, insert—The principal of this Security shall not bear interest except in the case of a default in payment of principal upon acceleration, upon redemption or at Stated Maturity and in such case the overdue principal and any overdue premium shall bear interest at the rate of                 % per annum (to the extent that the payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable), from the dates such amounts are due until they are paid or made available for payment. Interest on any overdue principal or premium shall be payable on demand. [Any such interest on overdue principal or premium which is not paid on demand shall bear interest at the rate of                 % per annum (to the extent that the payment of such interest on interest shall be legally enforceable), from the date of such demand until the amount so demanded is paid or made available for payment. Interest on any overdue interest shall be payable on demand.]].

Payment of the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and [any such] interest on this Security will be made at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in                  in such coin or currency of [the United States of America] as at the time of payment is legal tender for payment of public and private debts[; provided, however, that at the option of the Company payment of interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the Person entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the register of the Security maintained by the Registrar].

Reference is hereby made to the further provisions of this Security set forth on the reverse hereof, which further provisions shall for all purposes have the same effect as if set forth at this place.

 


Unless the certificate of authentication hereon has been manually executed by or on behalf of the Trustee under the Indenture referred to on the reverse hereof, this Security shall not be entitled to any benefit under the Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Company has caused this instrument to be duly executed under its corporate seal.

 

Dated:   Stoke Therapeutics, Inc.
  By                   
  [Title]

 

Attest and Countersign
 
Secretary

 

 

2


[Reverse of Security.]

STOKE THERAPEUTICS, INC.

This Security is one of a duly authorized issue of securities of the Company (herein called the “Securities”), issued and to be issued in one or more series under an Indenture dated as of                 , (herein called the “Indenture,” which term shall have the meaning assigned to it in such instrument), between the Company and                 , as trustee (herein called the “Trustee”, which term includes any successor trustee under the Indenture), to which the Indenture and all indentures supplemental thereto reference is hereby made for a statement of the respective rights, limitations or rights, duties and immunities thereunder of the Company, the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities and of the terms upon which the Securities are, and are to be, authenticated and delivered. This Security is one of the series designated on the face hereof [, limited in aggregate principal amount to $                ].

[If the Security is to be subordinated, insert—The indebtedness evidenced by this Security is, to the extent and in the manner set forth in the Indenture, expressly subordinated and subject in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all senior Indebtedness (as defined in the Indenture) of the Company. This Security is issued subject to such provisions of the Indenture, and each Holder of this Security, by accepting the same, agrees to and shall be bound by such provisions and authorizes and directs the Trustee on the Holder’s behalf to take such action as may be necessary or appropriate to acknowledge or effectuate such subordination as provided in the Indenture and appoints the Trustee such Holder’s attorney-in-fact for any and all such purposes.]

The Securities of this series are subject to redemption upon not less than 30 days’, and no more than 60 days, notice provided in the manner set forth in the Indenture, [(1) on in any year commencing with the year and ending with the year at the Redemption Price (as indicated below) equal to 100% of the principal amount, and (2)] at any time [on or after], as a whole or in part, at the election of the principal the following Redemption Prices (expressed as percentages of the principal amount, as indicated below): If redeemed [on or before ,                 %, and if redeemed] during the 12-month period beginning of the years indicated,

 

Year

   Redemption Price    Year    Redemption Price
        
        
        

and thereafter at a Redemption Price equal to    % of the principal amount together in the case of any such redemption with accrued interest to the Redemption Date, but interest installments whose Stated Maturity is on or prior to such Redemption Date will be payable to the Holders of such Securities of record at the close of business on the relevant record dates referred to on the face hereof, all as provided in the Indenture.

[If the Security is to be redeemable in part, insert—In the event of redemption of this Security in part only, a new Security or Securities of this series for the unredeemed portion hereof will be issued in the name of the Holder hereof upon the cancellation hereof.]

[If the Security is to be subject to repayment at the option of the Holder, insert—To be repaid at the option of the Holder, the Company must receive this Security, with the form of “Option to Elect Repayment” hereon duly completed, at an office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in (or at such other place of which the Company shall from time to time notify the Holder of this Security) not less than                nor more than                days prior to the Repayment Date (as defined therein). The exercise of the repayment option by the Holder shall be irrevocable.]

[If the Security is not to be subject to redemption at the option of the Company, insert—The Securities are not redeemable at the option of the Company prior to Maturity.]

[If the Security is not to be an Original Issue Discount Security, insert—If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of this series shall occur and be continuing, the principal of the Securities of this series may be declared due and payable in the manner and with the effect provided in the Indenture.]

The Indenture permits, with certain exceptions as therein provided, the amendment thereof and the modification of the rights and obligations of the Company and the rights of the Holders of the Securities of each Series under the Indenture to be affected at any time by the Company with the consent of the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities then outstanding of each Series to be affected.

The Indenture also contains provisions permitting the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series then outstanding, on behalf of the Holders of all Securities of such series, to waive compliance by the Company with certain provisions of the Indenture and certain past Defaults or Events of Default with respect to such Series under the Indenture and their consequences.


Any such consent or waiver by the Holder of this Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such Holder and upon all future Holders of this Security and of any Security issued upon the registration of transfer hereof or in exchange herefor or in lieu hereof, whether or not notation of such consent of waiver is made upon this Security.

As provided in and subject to the provisions of the indenture, the Holder of this Security shall not have the right to institute any proceeding with respect to the Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee or for any other remedy thereunder, unless such Holder shall have previously given the Trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of this series, the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of this series then outstanding shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default as Trustee and offered the Trustee indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, and the Trustee shall not have received from the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of Securities of this series then outstanding a direction inconsistent with such request, and shall have failed to institute any such proceeding, for 60 days after receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity. The foregoing shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Holder of this Security for the enforcement of any payment of principal hereof or any premium or interest hereon on or after the respective due dates expressed herein.

No reference herein to the Indenture and no provision of this Security or of the Indenture shall alter or impair the obligation of the Company, which is absolute and unconditional, to pay the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and interest on this Security at the times, place and rate, and in the coin or currency, herein prescribed.

[If the Security is to be in registered form, insert—As provided in the Indenture and subject to certain limitations therein set forth, the transfer of this Security is registrable in the register of the Registrar, upon surrender of this Security for registration of transfer at the office or agency of the Company in any place where the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and interest on this Security are payable, duly endorsed by, or accompanied by a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Registrar duly executed by, the Holder hereof or his attorney duly authorized in writing, and, thereupon one or more new Securities of this series, of authorized denominations and for the same aggregate principal amount, will be issued to the designated transferee or transferees.]

[The Securities of this series are issuable only in registered form in denominations of $                [and any integral multiple] [or increments of $                in excess] thereof. As provided in the Indenture and subject to certain limitations therein set forth, Securities of this series are exchangeable for a like aggregate principal amount of Securities of this series of a different authorized denomination, as requested by the Holder surrendering the same.]

[No service charge shall be made for any such registration of transfer or exchange, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection therewith.]

[Prior to due presentment of this Security for registration of transfer, the Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or the Trustee may treat the Person in whose name this Security is registered as the owner hereof for all purposes, whether or not this Security be overdue, and neither the Company, the Trustee nor any such agent shall be affected by notice to the contrary.]

[If the Security is a Global Security, insert—“Global Security” and “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities evidencing all or a part of a series of Securities, issued to the Depositary (as hereinafter defined) for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or its nominee. “Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as the Depositary by the Company.

No holder of any beneficial interest in this Security held on its behalf by a Depositary or a nominee of such Depositary shall have any rights under the Indenture with respect to such Global Security, and such Depositary or nominee may be treated by the Company, the Trustee, and any agent of the Company or the Trustee as the owner of such Global Security for all purposes whatsoever. Notwithstanding the foregoing, nothing herein shall impair, as between a Depositary and such holders of beneficial interests, the operation of customary practices governing the exercise of the rights of the Depositary as Holder of any Security.

This Security is exchangeable, in whole but not in part, for Securities registered in the names of Persons other than the Depositary or its nominee or in the name of a successor to the Depositary or a nominee of such successor depositary only if (i) the Depositary notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for this Note or if at any time such Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and, in either case, a successor depositary is not appointed by the Company within 90 days, (ii) the Company in its discretion at any time determines not to have all of the Securities of this series represented by one or more Global Security or Securities and notifies the Trustee thereof, or (iii) an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to the Securities of this series. If this Security is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence, it shall be exchangeable for Securities issuable in authorized denominations and registered in such names as the Depositary holding this Security shall direct. Subject to the foregoing, this Security is not exchangeable, except for a Security or Securities of the same aggregate denominations to be registered in the name of such Depositary or its nominee or in the name of a successor to the Depositary or a nominee of such successor depositary.]

 

4


[The Indenture entitles Holders to receive annual reports with respect to the Trustee’s eligibility and qualifications to serve as Trustee by filing their names and addresses with the Trustee for that purpose within two years preceding and mailing of any such annual report.]

No recourse shall be had for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any, on) or interest on this Security, or for any claim based hereon, or otherwise in respect hereof, or based on or in respect of the Indenture of any indenture supplemental thereto, against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, as such, past, present or future, of the Company or any successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise, all such liability being, by the acceptance hereof and as part of the consideration for the issue hereof, expressly waived and released.

All terms used in this Security which are defined in the Indenture shall have the meanings assigned to them in the Indenture.

This Security, including without limitation the obligation of the Company contained herein to pay the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and interest on this Security in accordance with the terms hereof and of the Indenture, shall be construed in accordance with and governed by the laws of the State of New York.

[Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication.]

This is one of the Securities of the series designated herein referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

, as

[Authenticating Agent for] the Trustee

By               
Authorized Officer

 

5

EX-4.4

Exhibit 4.4

STOKE THERAPEUTICS, INC.

And

                             , as Trustee

INDENTURE

Dated as of                 ,

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ARTICLE 1 – DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     1  

1.1 DEFINITIONS

     1  

1.2. OTHER DEFINITIONS

     4  

1.3. INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF TRUST INDENTURE ACT

     4  

1.4. RULES OF CONSTRUCTION

     4  

ARTICLE 2 – THE SECURITIES

     5  

2.1. ISSUABLE IN SERIES

     5  

2.2. ESTABLISHMENT OF TERMS OF SERIES OF SECURITIES

     5  

2.3. EXECUTION AND AUTHENTICATION

     6  

2.4. REGISTRAR AND PAYING AGENT

     7  

2.5. PAYING AGENT TO HOLD ASSETS IN TRUST

     7  

2.6. SECURITYHOLDER LISTS

     8  

2.7. TRANSFER AND EXCHANGE

     8  

2.8. REPLACEMENT SECURITIES

     8  

2.9. OUTSTANDING SECURITIES

     8  

2.10. WHEN TREASURY SECURITIES DISREGARDED; DETERMINATION OF HOLDERS’ ACTION

     9  

2.11. TEMPORARY SECURITIES

     9  

2.12. CANCELLATION

     9  

2.13. PAYMENT OF INTEREST; DEFAULTED INTEREST; COMPUTATION OF INTEREST

     9  

2.14. CUSIP NUMBER

     10  

2.15. PROVISIONS FOR GLOBAL SECURITIES

     10  

2.16. PERSONS DEEMED OWNERS

     11  

ARTICLE 3 – REDEMPTION

     11  

3.1. NOTICES TO TRUSTEE

     11  

3.2. SELECTION BY TRUSTEE OF SECURITIES TO BE REDEEMED

     11  

3.3. NOTICE OF REDEMPTION

     11  

3.4. EFFECT OF NOTICE OF REDEMPTION

     12  

3.5. DEPOSIT OF REDEMPTION PRICE

     12  

3.6. SECURITIES REDEEMED IN PART

     12  

ARTICLE 4 – COVENANTS

     12  

4.1. PAYMENT OF SECURITIES

     12  

4.2. SEC REPORTS

     13  

4.3. WAIVER OF STAY, EXTENSION OR USURY LAWS

     13  

4.4. COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATE

     13  

4.5. CORPORATE EXISTENCE

     13  

ARTICLE 5 – SUCCESSOR CORPORATION

     13  

5.1. LIMITATION ON CONSOLIDATION, MERGER AND SALE OF ASSETS

     13  

5.2. SUCCESSOR PERSON SUBSTITUTED

     14  

ARTICLE 6 – DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

     14  

6.1. EVENTS OF DEFAULT

     14  

6.2. ACCELERATION

     15  

6.3. REMEDIES

     15  

6.4. WAIVER OF PAST DEFAULTS AND EVENTS OF DEFAULT

     15  

6.5. CONTROL BY MAJORITY

     15  

6.6. LIMITATION ON SUITS

     16  

6.7. RIGHTS OF HOLDERS TO RECEIVE PAYMENT

     16  

6.8. COLLECTION SUIT BY TRUSTEE

     16  

6.9. TRUSTEE MAY FILE PROOFS OF CLAIM

     16  

6.10. PRIORITIES

     17  

6.11. UNDERTAKING FOR COSTS

     17  

ARTICLE 7 – TRUSTEE

     17  

7.1. DUTIES OF TRUSTEE

     17  

7.2. RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE

     18  

7.3. INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE

     18  

7.4. TRUSTEE’S DISCLAIMER

     18  

7.5. NOTICE OF DEFAULT

     19  


7.6. REPORTS BY TRUSTEE TO HOLDERS

     19  

7.7. COMPENSATION AND INDEMNITY

     19  

7.8. REPLACEMENT OF TRUSTEE

     19  

7.9. SUCCESSOR TRUSTEE BY CONSOLIDATION, MERGER OR CONVERSION

     20  

7.10. ELIGIBILITY; DISQUALIFICATION

     20  

7.11. PREFERENTIAL COLLECTION OF CLAIMS AGAINST COMPANY

     20  

7.12. PAYING AGENTS

     20  

ARTICLE 8 – AMENDMENTS, SUPPLEMENTS AND WAIVERS

     21  

8.1. WITHOUT CONSENT OF HOLDERS

     21  

8.2. WITH CONSENT OF HOLDERS

     21  

8.3. COMPLIANCE WITH TRUST INDENTURE ACT

     22  

8.4. REVOCATION AND EFFECT OF CONSENTS

     22  

8.5. NOTATION ON OR EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

     22  

8.6. TRUSTEE TO SIGN AMENDMENTS, ETC.

     22  

ARTICLE 9 – DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE

     23  

9.1. DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE

     23  

9.2. LEGAL DEFEASANCE

     23  

9.3. COVENANT DEFEASANCE

     23  

9.4. CONDITIONS TO LEGAL DEFEASANCE OR COVENANT DEFEASANCE

     23  

9.5. DEPOSITED MONEY AND U.S. AND FOREIGN GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS TO BE HELD IN TRUST; OTHER MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

     24  

9.6. REINSTATEMENT

     24  

9.7. MONEYS HELD BY PAYING AGENT

     25  

9.8. MONEYS HELD BY TRUSTEE

     25  

ARTICLE 10 – MISCELLANEOUS

     25  

10.1. TRUST INDENTURE ACT CONTROLS

     25  

10.2. NOTICES

     25  

10.3. COMMUNICATIONS BY HOLDERS WITH OTHER HOLDERS

     26  

10.4. CERTIFICATE AND OPINION AS TO CONDITIONS PRECEDENT

     26  

10.5. STATEMENT REQUIRED IN CERTIFICATE AND OPINION

     26  

10.6. RULES BY TRUSTEE AND AGENTS

     26  

10.7. BUSINESS DAYS; LEGAL HOLIDAYS; PLACE OF PAYMENT

     27  

10.8. GOVERNING LAW

     27  

10.9. NO ADVERSE INTERPRETATION OF OTHER AGREEMENTS

     27  

10.10. NO RECOURSE AGAINST OTHERS

     27  

10.11. SUCCESSORS

     27  

10.12. MULTIPLE COUNTERPARTS

     27  

10.13. TABLE OF CONTENTS, HEADINGS, ETC.

     27  

10.14. SEVERABILITY

     27  

10.15. SECURITIES IN A FOREIGN CURRENCY OR IN EUROS

     28  

10.16. JUDGMENT CURRENCY

     28  

 

 

iii


INDENTURE, dated as of                 ,                 , by and between Stoke Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation, as Issuer (the “Company”) and                 , a                  organized under the laws of                 , as Trustee (the “Trustee”).

RECITALS OF THE COMPANY

The Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance from time to time of its debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”), as herein provided, up to such principal amount as may from time to time be authorized in or pursuant to one or more resolutions of the Board of Directors or by supplemental indenture.

All things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company in accordance with its terms have been done, and the execution and delivery thereof have been in all respects duly authorized by the parties hereto.

NOW, THEREFORE, THIS INDENTURE WITNESSETH:

For and in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the Holders thereof, it is mutually agreed, for the equal and proportionate benefit of all Holders of the Securities of a Series thereof, as follows:

ARTICLE 1 –

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

1.1 DEFINITIONS.

“Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person which, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, or is controlled by or is under common control with, such specified Person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlling,” “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any Person, means the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by agreement or otherwise.

“Agent” means any Registrar, Paying Agent, co-registrar or agent for service of notices and demands.

“Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any committee duly authorized to act therefor.

“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified pursuant to an Officers’ Certificate to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors of the Company and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification which has been delivered to the Trustee.

“Capital Stock” means, with respect to any Person, any and all shares or other equivalents (however designated) of capital stock, partnership interests or any other participation, right or other interest in the nature of an equity interest in such Person or any option, warrant or other security convertible into any of the foregoing.

“Company” means the party named as such in the first paragraph of this Indenture until a successor replaces such party pursuant to Article 5 of this Indenture, and thereafter means the successor and any other primary obligor on the Securities.

“Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by two Officers, one of whom must be its Chief Executive Officer or its Chief Financial Officer.

“Company Request” means any written request signed in the name of the Company by its Chief Executive Officer, its President, any Vice President, its Chief Financial Officer or its Treasurer and attested to by its Secretary or any Assistant Secretary.

“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business shall be principally administered.

“Default” means any event that is, or that with the passing of time or giving of notice or both would be, an Event of Default.

“Depository” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the Person designated as Depository for such Series by the Company, which Depository shall be a clearing agency

 

1


registered under the Exchange Act, until a successor Depository shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depository” shall mean each Person who is then a Depository hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, such Persons.

“Dollars” means the currency of the United States of America.

“Euro” means the single currency of participating member states of the economic and monetary union as contemplated in the Treaty on European Union.

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

“Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of the United States of America.

“Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, (i) direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by, or acting as an agency or instrumentality of, such government, the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by such government, which, in either case under clauses (i) and (ii), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

“GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles consistently applied as in effect in the United States of America from time to time.

“Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.2, evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities issued to the Depository for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depository or nominee, and bearing the legend set forth in Section 2.15(c) (or such other legend(s) as may be applied to such Securities in accordance with Section 2.2(24)).

“Holder” or “Securityholder” means the Person in whose name a Security is registered on the Registrar’s books.

“Indebtedness” means (without duplication), with respect to any Person, any indebtedness at any time outstanding, secured or unsecured, contingent or otherwise, which is for borrowed money (whether or not the recourse of the lender is to the whole of the assets of such Person or only to a portion thereof), or evidenced by bonds, notes, debentures or similar instruments, or representing the balance, deferred and unpaid, of the purchase price of any property (excluding any balances that constitute accounts payable or trade payables, and other accrued liabilities arising in the ordinary course of business), if and to the extent any of the foregoing indebtedness would appear as a liability upon a balance sheet of such Person prepared in accordance with GAAP.

“Indenture” means this Indenture as amended, restated or supplemented from time to time.

“Interest Payment Date,” when used with respect to any Security, means the Stated Maturity of an installment of interest on such Security.

“Lien” means, with respect to any property or assets of any Person, any mortgage or deed of trust, pledge, hypothecation, assignment, deposit arrangement, security interest, lien, charge, easement, encumbrance, preference, priority or other security agreement or preferential arrangement of any kind or nature whatsoever on or with respect to such property or assets (including, without limitation, any capitalized lease obligation, conditional sales or other title retention agreement having substantially the same economic effect as any of the foregoing).

“Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security, or an installment of principal, becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption, notice of option to elect payment or otherwise.

“Officer” means the Chief Executive Officer, the President, any Vice President, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer or the Secretary of the Company, or any other officer designated by the Board of Directors, as the case may be.

“Officers’ Certificate” means, with respect to any Person, a certificate signed by both (i) the Chief Executive Officer, President, any Vice President or Secretary and (ii) the Chief Financial Officer or any Treasurer of such Person, that shall comply with applicable provisions of this Indenture.

 

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“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion from legal counsel, which counsel is reasonably acceptable to the Trustee. The counsel may be an employee of or outside counsel to the Company.

“Person” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government (including any agency or political subdivision thereof).

“Redemption Date,” when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the date fixed for such redemption pursuant to this Indenture.

“Responsible Officer,” when used with respect to the Trustee, means any officer within the corporate trust department or division of the Trustee (or any successor group of the Trustee) or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers, and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

“SEC” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission as constituted from time to time, or any successor performing substantially the same functions.

“Securities” means the securities that are issued under this Indenture, as amended, restated or supplemented from time to time pursuant to this Indenture.

“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

“Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.1 and 2.2.

“Significant Subsidiary” means (i) any direct or indirect Subsidiary of the Company that would be a “significant subsidiary” as defined in Article 1, Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X, promulgated pursuant to the Securities Act, as such regulation is in effect on the date hereof, or (ii) any group of direct or indirect Subsidiaries of the Company that, taken together as a group, would be a “significant subsidiary” as defined in Article 1, Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X, promulgated pursuant to the Securities Act, as such regulation is in effect on the date hereof.

“Stated Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security and the interest thereon, or such installment of principal or interest, is due and payable, and when used with respect to any other Indebtedness, means the date specified in the instrument governing such Indebtedness as the fixed date on which the principal of such Indebtedness, or any installment of interest thereon, is due and payable.

“Subsidiary” of any specified Person means any corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, association or other business entity, whether now existing or hereafter organized or acquired, (i) in the case of a corporation, of which more than 50% of the total voting power of the Capital Stock entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors thereof is held, directly or indirectly, by such Person or any of its Subsidiaries; or (ii) in the case of a partnership, joint venture, association or other business entity, with respect to which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries has the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of such entity by contract or otherwise, or if in accordance with GAAP such entity is consolidated with such Person for financial statement purposes.

“TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code Section 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture (except as provided in Section 8.3).

“Trustee” means the party named as such in this Indenture until a successor replaces it pursuant to this Indenture, and thereafter means the successor, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

“U.S. Government Obligations” means direct non-callable obligations of, or non-callable obligations guaranteed by, the United States of America for the payment of which obligation or guarantee the full faith and credit of the United States of America is pledged.

 

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1.2. OTHER DEFINITIONS.

The definitions of the following terms may be found in the sections indicated as follows:

 

TERM

   DEFINED IN SECTION

“Bankruptcy Law”

   6.1

“Business Day”

   10.7

“Covenant Defeasance”

   9.3

“Custodian”

   6.1

“Event of Default”

   6.1

“Journal”

   10.15

“Judgment Currency”

   10.16

“Legal Defeasance”

   9.2

“Legal Holiday”

   10.7

“Market Exchange Rate”

   10.15

“New York Paying Agent”

   2.4

“Paying Agent”

   2.4

“Place of Payment”

   10.7

“Registrar”

   2.4

“Required Currency”

   10.16

“Service Agent”

   2.4

1.3. INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF TRUST INDENTURE ACT.

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the portion of such provision required to be incorporated herein in order for this Indenture to be qualified under the TIA is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

“Commission” means the SEC.

“Indenture securities” means the Securities.

“Indenture securityholder” means a Holder or Securityholder.

“Indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

“Indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

“Obligor on the indenture securities” means the Company or any other obligor on the Securities.

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined in the TIA by reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule have the meanings therein assigned to them.

1.4. RULES OF CONSTRUCTION.

Unless the context otherwise requires:

(1) a term has the meaning assigned to it herein, whether defined expressly or by reference;

(2) unless otherwise specified herein, all accounting terms used herein shall be interpreted, all accounting determinations hereunder shall be made, and all financial statements required to be delivered hereunder shall be prepared in accordance with GAAP;

(3) “or” is not exclusive;

(4) words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular;

(5) words used herein implying any gender shall apply to each gender;

 

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(6) the words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision; and

(7) “$,” refers to Dollars, or such other money of the United States that at the time of payment is legal tender for payment of public and private debts.

ARTICLE 2 –

THE SECURITIES

2.1. ISSUABLE IN SERIES.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is $                ,                 ,                 . The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to the authority granted under a Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, Stated Maturity, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, PROVIDED, that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.

2.2. ESTABLISHMENT OF TERMS OF SERIES OF SECURITIES.

At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.2(1) and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.2(2) through 2.2(24)) by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, in each case, pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution:

(1) the title of the Series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series);

(2) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.7, 2.8, 2.11, 3.6 or 8.5);

(3) the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

(4) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

(5) the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any Interest Payment Date;

(6) the place or places where the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series shall be payable, or the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

(7) if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

(8) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof, and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

(9) the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof, and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

(10) if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

(11) the forms of the Securities of the Series in bearer (if to be issued outside of the United States of America) or fully registered form (and, if in fully registered form, whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities);

 

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(12) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2;

(13) the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, including, but not limited to, the Euro, and, if such currency of denomination is a composite currency other than the Euro, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

(14) the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series will be made;

(15) if payments of principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

(16) the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, or interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

(17) the provisions, if any, relating to any collateral provided for the Securities of the Series;

(18) any addition to or change in the covenants set forth in Articles 4 or 5 that applies to Securities of the Series;

(19) any addition to or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series, any provision for the payment of additional interest or liquidated damages in connection with any Event of Default, and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.2;

(20) the terms and conditions, if any, for conversion of the Securities into or exchange of the Securities for shares of common stock, preferred stock, other debt securities, or warrants, subscription rights or units for common stock, preferred stock or other securities of any kind of the Company that apply to Securities of the Series;

(21) any Trustees, depositories, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein;

(22) the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Securities shall be subordinated in right of payment to other Indebtedness of the Company;

(23) if applicable, that the Securities of the Series, in whole or any specified part, shall be defeasible pursuant to Article 9; and

(24) any other terms of the Securities of the Series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, except as permitted by Section 8.1, but which may modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series).

All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time, and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate referred to above, however, the authorized principal amount of any Series may not be increased to provide for issuances of additional Securities of such Series, unless otherwise provided in such Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate.

2.3. EXECUTION AND AUTHENTICATION.

The Securities shall be executed on behalf of the Company by two Officers of the Company or an Officer and an Assistant Secretary of the Company. Each such signature may be either manual or facsimile. The Company’s seal may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or reproduced on the Securities and may be in facsimile form.

If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture. The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Such Company Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral or electronic instructions from the Company or its duly authorized agent or agents, which oral instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

 

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The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2, except as provided in Section 2.8.

Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.1) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officers’ Certificate complying with Section 10.4, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.4.

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of any Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised in writing by outside counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or trustees, executive committee or a trust committee of directors and/or vice-presidents shall reasonably determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability, or cause it to have a conflict of interest with respect to Holders of any then outstanding Series of Securities.

The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Any appointment shall be evidenced by an instrument signed by an authorized officer of the Trustee, a copy of which shall be furnished to the Company. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.

2.4. REGISTRAR AND PAYING AGENT.

The Company shall maintain in each Place of Payment for any Series of Securities (i) an office or agency where such Securities may be presented for registration of transfer or for exchange (“Registrar”), (ii) an office or agency where such Securities may be presented for payment (“Paying Agent”),and PROVIDED, that at the option of the Company payment of interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the Person entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the register for the Securities maintained by the Registrar), and (iii) an office or agency where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities and this Indenture may be served (“Service Agent”). The Registrar shall keep a register of the Securities and of their transfer and exchange. The Company may have one or more co-Registrars and Service Agents and one or more additional Paying Agents. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the location, and any change in the location, of such office or agency. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office, or to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the address of the Trustee as set forth in Section 10.2. The Company or any of its Subsidiaries may also act as Paying Agent. If the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate the money held by it for the payment of principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities and hold it as a separate trust fund. The Company may change any Paying Agent, Registrar, co-registrar, Service Agent or any other Agent without notice to any Securityholder.

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more other offices or agencies where the Securities may be presented or surrendered for any or all such purposes, and may from time to time rescind such designations; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligation to maintain an office or agency in each Place of Payment for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company hereby initially designates the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee as such office of the Company. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of such designation or rescission, and of any change in the location of any such other office or agency.

The Company shall enter into an appropriate agency agreement with any Registrar, Paying Agent or Service Agent not a party to this Indenture. The agreement shall implement the provisions of this Indenture that relate to such Agent. The Company shall notify the Trustee of the name and address of any such Agent. If the Company fails to maintain a Registrar, Paying Agent, or Service Agent and demands, or fails to give the foregoing notice, the Trustee shall act as such. The Company hereby appoints the Trustee as the initial Registrar, Paying Agent and Service Agent for each Series unless another Registrar, Paying Agent or Service Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued. The Company designates, as the New York Paying Agent, with offices at:    .

2.5. PAYING AGENT TO HOLD ASSETS IN TRUST.

The Trustee as Paying Agent shall, and the Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that each Paying Agent shall, hold in trust for the benefit of the Holders of any Series of Securities or the Trustee all assets held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, such Series of Securities (whether such assets have been distributed to it by the Company or any other obligor on such Series of Securities), and the Company and the Paying Agent shall

 

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notify the Trustee in writing of any Default by the Company (or any other obligor on such Series of Securities) in making any such payment. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to distribute all assets held by it to the Trustee and account for any assets disbursed, and the Trustee may, at any time during the continuance of any payment default with respect to any Series of Securities, upon written request to a Paying Agent, require such Paying Agent to distribute all assets held by it to the Trustee and to account for any assets distributed. Upon distribution to the Trustee of all assets that shall have been delivered by the Company to the Paying Agent, the Paying Agent shall have no further liability for such assets.

2.6. SECURITYHOLDER LISTS.

The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities. If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee as of each regular record date for the payment of interest on the Securities of a Series and before each related Interest Payment Date, and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, a list in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.

2.7. TRANSFER AND EXCHANGE.

When Securities of a Series are presented by the Holder to the Registrar with a request to register the transfer thereof, the Registrar shall register the transfer as requested if the requirements of applicable law are met, and when such Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar with a request to exchange them for an equal principal amount of other authorized denominations of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall make the exchange as requested. To permit transfers and exchanges, upon surrender of any Security for registration of transfer at the office or agency maintained pursuant to Section 2.4, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request.

If Securities are issued as Global Securities, the provisions of Section 2.15 shall apply.

All Securities issued upon any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities shall be the valid obligations of the Company, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such registration of transfer or exchange.

Every Security presented or surrendered for registration of transfer or for exchange shall (if so required by the Company or the Registrar or a co-registrar) be duly endorsed, or be accompanied by a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Registrar or a co-registrar, duly executed by the Holder thereof or his attorney duly authorized in writing.

Any exchange or transfer shall be without charge, except that the Company may require payment by the Holder of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation to a transfer or exchange, but this provision shall not apply to any exchange pursuant to Section 2.11, 3.6 or 8.5. The Trustee shall not be required to register transfers of Securities of any Series, or to exchange Securities of any Series, for a period of 15 days before the record date for selection for redemption of such Securities. The Trustee shall not be required to exchange or register transfers of Securities of any Series called or being called for redemption in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of such Security being redeemed in part.

2.8. REPLACEMENT SECURITIES.

If a mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, or if the Holder of a Security presents evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee that the Security has been lost, destroyed or wrongfully taken, the Company shall issue and the Trustee shall authenticate a replacement Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding. An indemnity bond may be required by the Company or the Trustee that is sufficient in the reasonable judgment of the Company or the Trustee, as the case may be, to protect the Company, the Trustee or any Agent from any loss which any of them may suffer if a Security is replaced. The Company may charge such Holder for the Company’s out-of-pocket expenses in replacing a Security, including the fees and expenses of the Trustee. Every replacement Security shall constitute an original additional obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.

2.9. OUTSTANDING SECURITIES.

Securities outstanding at any time are all Securities authenticated by the Trustee, except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation and those described in this Section 2.9 as not outstanding.

 

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If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.8 (other than a mutilated Security surrendered for replacement), it ceases to be outstanding until the Company and the Trustee receive proof satisfactory to each of them that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser. A mutilated Security ceases to be outstanding upon surrender of such Security and replacement thereof pursuant to Section 2.8.

If a Paying Agent holds on a Redemption Date or the Stated Maturity money sufficient to pay the principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest on, Securities payable on that date, and is not prohibited from paying such money to the Holders thereof pursuant to the terms of this Indenture (PROVIDED, that if such Securities are to be redeemed, notice of such redemption has been duly given pursuant to this Indenture or provision therefor satisfactory to the Trustee has been made), then on and after that date and upon payment of such money to the Holder, such Securities will be cancelled and cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.

A Security does not cease to be outstanding solely because the Company or an Affiliate holds the Security.

2.10. WHEN TREASURY SECURITIES DISREGARDED; DETERMINATION OF HOLDERS’ ACTION.

In determining whether the Holders of the required aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any Series have concurred in any direction, waiver or consent, the Securities of any Series owned by the Company or any other obligor on such Securities, or by any Affiliate of any of them, shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, waiver or consent, only Securities of such Series which the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities of such Series so owned which have been pledged in good faith shall not be disregarded if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to the Securities of such Series and that the pledgee is not the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of such Series, or an Affiliate of any of them.

2.11. TEMPORARY SECURITIES.

Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate, temporary Securities. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form, and shall carry all rights, of definitive Securities, but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate, definitive Securities in exchange for temporary Securities without charge to the Holder.

2.12. CANCELLATION.

All Securities surrendered for payment, redemption or registration of transfer or exchange, or for credit against any sinking fund payment, shall, if surrendered to any Person other than the Trustee, be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation. The Company may at any time deliver to the Trustee for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated and delivered hereunder which the Company may have acquired in any manner whatsoever, and may deliver to the Trustee (or to any other Person for delivery to the Trustee) for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated hereunder which the Company has not issued and sold. The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee or, at the direction of the Trustee, the Registrar or the Paying Agent, and no one else, shall cancel, and at the written request of the Company shall dispose of, all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment or cancellation. If the Company shall acquire any of the Securities, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the Indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are surrendered to the Trustee for cancellation pursuant to this Section 2.12. No Securities shall be authenticated in lieu of or in exchange for any Securities cancelled as provided in this Section 2.12, except as expressly permitted by this Indenture.

2.13. PAYMENT OF INTEREST; DEFAULTED INTEREST; COMPUTATION OF INTEREST.

Except as otherwise provided as contemplated by Section 2.2 with respect to any Series of Securities, interest on any Security which is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date shall be paid to the Person in whose name that Security is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest, as provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate establishing the terms of such Series.

If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on the Securities, it shall pay the defaulted amounts, plus any interest payable on defaulted amounts pursuant to Section 4.1, to the Persons who are Securityholders on a subsequent special record date, which date shall be the 15th day next preceding the date fixed by the Company for the payment of defaulted interest, or the next succeeding Business Day if such date is not a Business Day. At least 15 days before the special record date, the Company shall mail or cause to be mailed to each Securityholder, with a copy to the Trustee, a notice that states the special record date, the payment date and the amount of defaulted interest, and interest payable on such defaulted interest, if any, to be paid.

 

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Except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2 for Securities of any Series, interest on the Securities of each Series shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.

2.14. CUSIP NUMBER.

The Company in issuing the Securities may use one or more “CUSIP” numbers, and, if the Company does so, the Trustee shall use the CUSIP number(s) in notices of redemption or exchange as a convenience to Holders, PROVIDED, that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness or accuracy of the CUSIP number(s) printed in the notice or on the Securities, and that reliance may be placed only on the other identification numbers printed on the Securities, and that any such redemption or exchange shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of any such numbers.

2.15. PROVISIONS FOR GLOBAL SECURITIES.

(a) A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, and the Depository for such Global Securities or Securities.

(b) Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.7 and in addition thereto, if, and only if the Depository (i) at any time is unwilling or unable to continue as Depository for such Global Security or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act and (ii) a successor Depository is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the date the Company is so informed in writing or becomes aware of the same, the Company promptly will execute and deliver to the Trustee definitive Securities, and the Trustee, upon receipt of a Company Request for the authentication and delivery of such definitive Securities (which the Company will promptly execute and deliver to the Trustee) and an Officers’ Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable, will authenticate and deliver definitive Securities, without charge, registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depository shall direct in writing (pursuant to instructions from its direct and indirect participants or otherwise) in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms. Upon the exchange of a Global Security for definitive Securities, such Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for definitive Securities, as provided in this Section 2.15(b), a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depository, by a nominee of such Depository to such Depository or another nominee of such Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.

(c) Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

“This Security is a Global Security within the meaning of the Indenture hereinafter referred to, and is registered in the name of the Depository or a nominee of the Depository. This Security is exchangeable for Securities registered in the name of a Person other than the Depository or its nominee only in the limited circumstances described in the Indenture, and may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository to a nominee of the Depository, by a nominee of the Depository to the Depository or another nominee of the Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.”

(d) The Depository, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under the Indenture.

(e) Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2, payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, any Global Security shall be made to the Depository or its nominee in its capacity as the Holder thereof.

(f) Except as provided in Section 2.15(e) above, the Company, the Trustee and any Agent shall treat a Person as the Holder of such principal amount of outstanding Securities of any Series represented by a Global Security as shall be specified in a written statement of the Depository (which may be in the form of a participants’ list for such Series) with respect to such Global Security, for purposes of obtaining any consents, declarations, waivers or directions required to be given by the Holders pursuant to this Indenture, PROVIDED, that until the Trustee is so provided with a written statement, it may treat the Depository or any other Person in whose name a Global Security is registered as the owner of such Global Security for the purpose of receiving payment of the principal of, and any premium and (subject to Section 2.13) any interest on, such Global Security and for all other purposes whatsoever, and none of the Company, the Trustee or any agent of the Company or the Trustee shall be affected by notice to the contrary.

 

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2.16. PERSONS DEEMED OWNERS.

Prior to due presentment of a Security for registration of transfer, the Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and any agent of the Company, the Registrar or the Trustee may treat the Person in whose name such Security is registered as the owner of such Security for the purpose of receiving payment of the principal of, and any premium and (subject to Section 2.13) any interest on, such Security and for all other purposes whatsoever, and none of the Company, the Trustee, the Registrar or any agent of the Company, the Trustee or the Registrar shall be affected by notice to the contrary.

ARTICLE 3 –

REDEMPTION

3.1. NOTICES TO TRUSTEE.

The Company may, with respect to any Series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities, or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof, prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities or the related Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate. If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company elects to redeem all or part of such Series of Securities, it shall notify the Trustee of the Redemption Date and the principal amount of Securities to be redeemed at least 45 days (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) before the Redemption Date. Any such notice may be canceled at any time prior to notice of such redemption being mailed to any Holder, and shall thereby be void and of no effect.

3.2. SELECTION BY TRUSTEE OF SECURITIES TO BE REDEEMED.

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series of Securities by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, if fewer than all of the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select the Securities of a Series to be redeemed pro rata, by lot or by any other method that the Trustee considers fair and appropriate (unless the Company specifically directs the Trustee otherwise) and, if such Securities are listed on any securities exchange, by a method that complies with the requirements of such exchange.

The Trustee shall make the selection from Securities of a Series outstanding and not previously called for redemption, and shall promptly notify the Company in writing of the Securities selected for redemption and, in the case of any Security selected for partial redemption, the principal amount thereof to be redeemed at least 35 but not more than 60 days before the Redemption Date. Securities of a Series in denominations of $1,000 may be redeemed only in whole. The Trustee may select for redemption portions of the principal of Securities of a Series that have denominations larger than $1,000. Securities of a Series and portions of them it selects shall be in amounts of $1,000 or, with respect to Securities of any Series issuable in other denominations pursuant to Section 2.2(10), the minimum principal denomination for each Series and integral multiples thereof. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities called for redemption.

3.3. NOTICE OF REDEMPTION.

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate, at least 30 days, and no more than 60 days, before a Redemption Date, the Company shall mail, or cause to be mailed, a notice of redemption by first-class mail to each Holder of Securities to be redeemed at his or her last address as the same appears on the registry books maintained by the Registrar. The notice shall identify the Securities to be redeemed and shall state:

(1) the Redemption Date;

(2) the redemption price, and that such redemption price shall become due and payable on the Redemption Date;

(3) if any Security of a Series is being redeemed in part, the portion of the principal amount of such Security of a Series to be redeemed and that, after the Redemption Date and upon surrender of such Security of a Series, a new Security or Securities in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion will be issued;

(4) the name and address of the Paying Agent;

(5) that Securities of a Series called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price, and the place or places where each such Security is to be surrendered for such payment;

(6) that, unless the Company defaults in making the redemption payment, interest on the Securities of a Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on the Redemption Date, and the only remaining right of the Holders of such Securities is to receive payment of the redemption price upon surrender to the Paying Agent of the Securities redeemed;

 

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(7) if fewer than all of the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the identification of the particular Securities of a Series (or portion thereof) to be redeemed, as well as the aggregate principal amount of Securities of a Series to be redeemed and the aggregate principal amount of Securities of a Series to be outstanding after such partial redemption.

(8) the CUSIP number, if any, printed on the Securities being redeemed; and

(9) that no representation is made as to the correctness or accuracy of the CUSIP number, if any, listed in such notice or printed on the Securities.

At the Company’s request, the Trustee shall give the notice of redemption in the Company’s name and at the Company’s sole expense.

3.4. EFFECT OF NOTICE OF REDEMPTION.

Once the notice of redemption described in Section 3.3 is mailed, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the Redemption Date and at the redemption price, plus interest, if any, accrued to the Redemption Date. Upon surrender to the Trustee or Paying Agent, such Securities of a Series shall be paid at the redemption price, plus accrued interest, if any, to the Redemption Date; PROVIDED, that if the Redemption Date is after a regular interest payment record date and on or prior to the next Interest Payment Date, the accrued interest shall be payable to the Holder of the redeemed Securities registered on the relevant record date, as specified by the Company in the notice to the Trustee pursuant to Section 3.1.

3.5. DEPOSIT OF REDEMPTION PRICE.

On or prior to the Redemption Date (but no later than 11:00 A.M. Eastern Time on such date), the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date other than Securities or portions thereof called for redemption on that date which have been delivered by the Company to the Trustee for cancellation.

On and after any Redemption Date, if money sufficient to pay the redemption price of, and accrued interest on, Securities called for redemption shall have been made available in accordance with the preceding paragraph and the Company and the Paying Agent are not prohibited from paying such moneys to Holders, the Securities called for redemption will cease to accrue interest and the only right of the Holders of such Securities will be to receive payment of the redemption price of and, subject to the proviso in Section 3.4, accrued and unpaid interest on such Securities to the Redemption Date. If any Security called for redemption shall not be so paid, interest will be paid, from the Redemption Date until such redemption payment is made, on the unpaid principal of the Security and any interest or premium, if any, not paid on such unpaid principal, in each case, at the rate and in the manner provided in the Securities.

3.6. SECURITIES REDEEMED IN PART.

Upon surrender of a Security of a Series that is redeemed in part, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate, for a Holder a new Security of the same Series equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered.

ARTICLE 4 –

COVENANTS

4.1. PAYMENT OF SECURITIES.

The Company shall pay the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, each Series of Securities on the dates and in the manner provided in such Securities and this Indenture.

An installment of principal or interest shall be considered paid on the date it is due if the Trustee or Paying Agent holds on that date money designated for and sufficient to pay such installment and is not prohibited from paying such money to the Holders pursuant to the terms of this Indenture or otherwise.

The Company shall pay interest on overdue principal, and overdue interest, to the extent lawful, at the rate specified in the Series of Securities.

 

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4.2. SEC REPORTS.

The Company will deliver to the Trustee within 15 days after the filing of the same with the SEC, copies of the quarterly and annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports, if any, which the Company is required to file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that each such report or document will be deemed to be so delivered to the Trustee if the Company files such report or document with the SEC through the SEC’s EDGAR database no later than the time such report or document is required to be filed with the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act. Notwithstanding that the Company may not be subject to the reporting requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, the Company will file with the SEC, to the extent permitted, and provide the Trustee with, such quarterly and annual reports and such information, documents and other reports specified in Sections 13 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Company will also comply with the other provisions of TIA Section 314(a).

4.3. WAIVER OF STAY, EXTENSION OR USURY LAWS.

The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, or plead (as a defense or otherwise) or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension, usury or other law which would prohibit or forgive the Company from paying all or any portion of the principal of, and/or interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities as contemplated herein, wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, or which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture; and the Company hereby expressly waives (to the extent that they may lawfully do so) all benefit or advantage of any such law, and covenants that it will not hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law had been enacted.

4.4. COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATE.

(a) The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company, an Officers’ Certificate which complies with TIA Section 314(a)(4) stating that a review of the activities of the Company and its Subsidiaries during such fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officers with a view to determining whether the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture, and further stating, as to each such Officer signing such certificate, that to the best of his or her knowledge the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled each and every covenant contained in this Indenture and that there is no default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (or, if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of Default of which he or she may have knowledge and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto) and that to the best of his or her knowledge no event has occurred and remains in existence by reason of which payments on account of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities is prohibited, or if such event has occurred, a description of the event and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.

(b)(i) If any Default or Event of Default has occurred and is continuing or (ii) if any Holder seeks to exercise any remedy hereunder with respect to a claimed Default under this Indenture or the Securities, within five Business Days after the Company becoming aware of such occurrence the Company shall deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate specifying such event, notice or other action and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.

4.5. CORPORATE EXISTENCE.

Subject to Article 5, the Company shall do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its corporate existence, in accordance with the organizational documents (as the same may be amended from time to time) of the Company and the rights (charter and statutory), licenses and franchises of the Company; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that the Company shall not be required to preserve any such right, license or franchise, or its corporate existence, if the Board of Directors shall determine that the preservation thereof is no longer desirable in the conduct of the business of the Company and that the loss thereof is not adverse in any material respect to the Holders.

ARTICLE 5 –

SUCCESSOR CORPORATION

5.1. LIMITATION ON CONSOLIDATION, MERGER AND SALE OF ASSETS.

(a) The Company will not, in any transaction or series of transactions, merge or consolidate with or into, or sell, assign, convey, transfer, lease or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its properties and assets (as an entirety or substantially as an entirety in one transaction or a series of related transactions), to any Person or Persons, unless at the time of and after giving effect thereto (i) either (A) if the transaction or series of transactions is a merger or consolidation, the Company shall be the surviving Person of such merger or consolidation, or (B) the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Company is merged or to which the

 

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properties and assets of the Company are transferred (any such surviving Person or transferee Person being the “Surviving Entity”) shall be a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the United States of America, any state thereof or the District of Columbia, or a corporation or comparable legal entity organized under the laws of a foreign jurisdiction and shall expressly assume by a supplemental indenture executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, all of the obligations of the Company (including, without limitation, the obligation to pay the principal of, and premium and interest, if any, on, the Securities and the performance of the other covenants) under the Securities of each Series and this Indenture, and in each case, this Indenture shall remain in full force and effect; and (ii) immediately before and immediately after giving effect to such transaction or series of transactions on a pro forma basis (including, without limitation, any Indebtedness incurred or anticipated to be incurred in connection with or in respect of such transaction or series of transactions), no Default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing.

(b) In connection with any consolidation, merger or transfer of assets contemplated by this Section 5.1, the Company shall deliver, or cause to be delivered, to the Trustee, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that such consolidation, merger or transfer, and the supplemental indenture in respect thereto,

comply with this Section 5.1, and that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to such transaction or transactions have been complied with.

5.2. SUCCESSOR PERSON SUBSTITUTED.

Upon any consolidation, merger or transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company in accordance with Section 5.1 above, the successor corporation formed by such consolidation, or into which the Company is merged or to which such transfer is made, shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor corporation had been named as the Company herein, and thereafter (except with respect to any such transfer which is a lease) the predecessor corporation shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

ARTICLE 6 –

DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

6.1. EVENTS OF DEFAULT.

An “Event of Default,” wherever used herein with respect to Securities of any Series, means any one of the following events, unless in the establishing Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate, it is provided that such Series shall not have the benefit of said Event of Default:

(1) there is a default in the payment of any principal of, or premium, if any, on, the Securities when the same becomes due and payable at Maturity, upon acceleration, redemption or otherwise;

(2) there is a default in the payment of any interest on any Security of a Series when the same becomes due and payable, and the Default continues for a period of 30 days;

(3) the Company defaults in the observance or performance of any other covenant in the Securities of a Series or in this Indenture for 90 days after written notice from the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such Series then outstanding, which notice must specify the Default, demand that it be remedied and state that the notice is a “Notice of Default”;

(4) the Company or any Significant Subsidiary pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:

(A) commences a voluntary case,

(B) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case,

(C) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property,

(D) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors, or

(E) generally is not paying its debts as they become due;

(5) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:

(A) is for relief against the Company or any Significant Subsidiary in an involuntary case;

(B) appoints a Custodian of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary, or for all or substantially all of the property of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary; or

 

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(C) orders the liquidation of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 consecutive days; or

(6) any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that Series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate, in accordance with Section 2.2(19).

The term “Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors. The term “Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

The Trustee may withhold notice of any Default (except in the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities) to the Holders of the Securities of any Series in accordance with Section 7.5. When a Default is cured, it ceases to exist.

6.2. ACCELERATION.

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding (other than an Event of Default arising under Section 6.1(4) or (5)) occurs and is continuing, the Trustee by written notice to the Company, or the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that Series then outstanding by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may declare that the entire principal amount of all the Securities of that Series then outstanding plus accrued and unpaid interest to the date of acceleration are immediately due and payable, in which case such amounts shall become immediately due and payable; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that after such acceleration but before a judgment or decree based on such acceleration is obtained by the Trustee, the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series may rescind and annul such acceleration and its consequences if (i) all existing Events of Default, other than the nonpayment of accelerated principal, interest or premium, if any, that has become due solely because of the acceleration, have been cured or waived, (ii) to the extent the payment of such interest is lawful, interest on overdue installments of interest and overdue principal, which has become due otherwise than by such declaration of acceleration, has been paid and (iii) the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree. No such rescission shall affect any subsequent Default or impair any right consequent thereto. In case an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(4) or (5) with respect to the Company occurs, such principal, premium, if any, and interest amount with respect to all of the Securities of that Series shall be due and payable immediately without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or the Holders of the Securities of that Series.

6.3. REMEDIES.

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may pursue any available remedy by proceeding at law or in equity to collect the payment of the principal of, or interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of that Series, or to enforce the performance of any provision of the Securities of that Series or this Indenture.

The Trustee may maintain a proceeding even if it does not possess any of the Securities of that Series or does not produce any of them in the proceeding. A delay or omission by the Trustee or any Securityholder in exercising any right or remedy accruing upon an Event of Default shall not impair the right or remedy or constitute a waiver of or acquiescence in the Event of Default. No remedy is exclusive of any other remedy. All available remedies are cumulative to the extent permitted by law.

6.4. WAIVER OF PAST DEFAULTS AND EVENTS OF DEFAULT.

Subject to Sections 6.2, 6.7 and 8.2, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series then outstanding have the right to waive any existing Default or Event of Default with respect to such Series or compliance with any provision of this Indenture (with respect to such Series) or the Securities of such Series. Upon any such waiver, such Default with respect to such Series shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default with respect to such Series arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or Event of Default or impair any right consequent thereto. This Section 6.4 shall be in lieu of TIA Section 316(a)(1)(B), and TIA Section 316(a)(1)(B) is hereby expressly excluded from this Indenture and Section as permitted by the TIA.

6.5. CONTROL BY MAJORITY.

Subject to Sections 6.2, 6.7 and 8.2, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series then outstanding may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee by this Indenture with respect to such Series. The Trustee, however, may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or this Indenture, or that the Trustee determines may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of another Securityholder, or that may involve the Trustee in personal liability; PROVIDED, that the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction. This Section 6.5 shall be in lieu of TIA Section 316(a)(1)(A), and TIA Section 316(a)(1)(A) is hereby expressly excluded from this Indenture and Section as permitted by the TIA.

 

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6.6. LIMITATION ON SUITS.

Subject to Section 6.7, a Securityholder may not institute any proceeding or pursue any remedy with respect to this Indenture or the Securities of a Series unless:

(1) the Holder gives to the Trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that Series;

(2) the Holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such Series then outstanding make a written request to the Trustee to pursue the remedy;

(3) such Holder or Holders offer to the Trustee indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee against any loss, liability or expense to be incurred in compliance with such request;

(4) the Trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer of indemnity; and

(5) no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such Series then outstanding.

A Securityholder may not use this Indenture to prejudice the rights of another Securityholder, or to obtain a preference or priority over another Securityholder.

6.7. RIGHTS OF HOLDERS TO RECEIVE PAYMENT.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture, the right of any Holder of a Security of a Series to receive payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Security of such Series on or after the respective due dates expressed in the Security of such Series, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates, is absolute and unconditional, and shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of the Holder.

6.8. COLLECTION SUIT BY TRUSTEE.

If an Event of Default in payment of principal, interest or premium, if any, specified in Section 6.1(1) or (2) with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may recover judgment in its own name and as trustee of an express trust against the Company (or any other obligor on the Securities of that Series) for the whole amount of unpaid principal and premium, if any, and accrued interest remaining unpaid, together with interest on overdue principal and premium, if any, and, to the extent that payment of such interest is lawful, interest on overdue installments of interest, in each case at the rate then borne by the Securities of that Series, and such further amounts as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, as set forth in Section 7.7.

6.9. TRUSTEE MAY FILE PROOFS OF CLAIM.

The Trustee may file such proofs of claim and other papers or documents, and take other actions (including sitting on a committee of creditors), as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and the Securityholders allowed in any judicial proceedings relative to the Company (or any other obligor on the Securities), any of their respective creditors or any of their respective property, and the Trustee shall be entitled and empowered to collect and receive any monies or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims, and to distribute the same after deduction of its charges and expenses to the extent that any such charges and expenses are not paid out of the estate in any such proceedings, and any custodian in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Securityholder to make such payments to the Trustee, and in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due to it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.7.

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to, or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder, any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of a Series or the rights of any Holder thereof, or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceedings.

 

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6.10. PRIORITIES.

If the Trustee collects any money pursuant to this Article 6, it shall pay out the money in the following order:

FIRST: to the Trustee for amounts due under Section 7.7;

SECOND: to Securityholders for amounts then due and unpaid for the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities in respect of which, or for the benefit of which, such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities; for principal and any premium and interest, respectively; and

THIRD: to the Company.

The Trustee may fix a record date and payment date for any payment to Securityholders pursuant to this Section 6.10. At least 15 days before such record date, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder a notice that states the record date, the payment date and amount to be paid.

6.11. UNDERTAKING FOR COSTS.

In any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, a court in its discretion may require the filing by any party litigant in the suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of the suit, and the court in its discretion may assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in the suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by the party litigant. This Section 6.11 does not apply to a suit by the Trustee, a suit by a Holder pursuant to Section 6.7 or a suit by Holders of more than 10% in principal amount of the Securities of a Series then outstanding.

ARTICLE 7 –

TRUSTEE

7.1. DUTIES OF TRUSTEE.

(a) If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise as a prudent Person would exercise or use under the same circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs.

(b) Except during the continuance of an Event of Default:

(1) The Trustee need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no covenants or obligations shall be implied in this Indenture against the Trustee.

(2) In the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture, but, in the case of any such certificates or opinions which by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture.

(c) The Trustee may not be relieved from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct, except that:

(1) This paragraph does not limit the effect of paragraph (b) of this Section 7.1.

(2) The Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer, unless it is proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts.

(3) The Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in accordance with a direction received by it pursuant to Sections 6.2 and 6.5.

(d) No provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds, or otherwise incur any financial liability, in the performance of any of its rights or powers if it shall have reasonable grounds for believing that repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity satisfactory to it against such risk or liability is not reasonably assured to it.

(e) Whether or not therein expressly so provided, paragraphs (a), (b), (c) and (d) of this Section 7.1 shall govern every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee.

 

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(f) The Trustee and Paying Agent shall not be liable for interest on any money received by either of them, except as the Trustee and Paying Agent may agree in writing with the Company. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by the law.

(g) The Paying Agent, the Registrar and any authenticating agent shall be entitled to the protections, immunities and standard of care set forth in paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d) and (f) of this Section 7.1 and in Section 7.2 with respect to the Trustee.

7.2. RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE.

(a) Subject to Section 7.1:

(1) The Trustee may rely on, and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon, any document reasonably believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper Person. The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document.

(2) Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require an Officers’ Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel, or both, which shall conform to the provisions of Section 10.5. The Trustee shall be protected and shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such certificate or opinion.

(3) The Trustee may act through agents and attorneys, and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of any agent appointed by it with due care.

(4) The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith which it reasonably believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers.

(5) The Trustee may consult with counsel reasonably acceptable to the Trustee, which may be counsel to the Company, and the advice or opinion of such counsel as to matters of law shall be full and complete authorization and protection from liability in respect of any action taken, omitted or suffered by it hereunder in good faith and in accordance with the advice or opinion of such counsel.

(6) The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Holders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities which may be incurred therein or thereby.

(7) The Trustee shall not be deemed to have knowledge of any fact or matter (including, without limitation, a Default or Event of Default) unless such fact or matter is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee.

(8) Unless otherwise expressly provided herein or in the Securities of a Series or the related Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate, the Trustee shall not have any responsibility with respect to reports, notices, certificates or other documents filed with it hereunder, except to make them available for inspection, at reasonable times, by Securityholders, it being understood that delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee is for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (except as set forth in Section 4.4).

7.3. INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE.

The Trustee in its individual or any other capacity may become the owner or pledgee of Securities, and may make loans to, accept deposits from, perform services for or otherwise deal with the Company, or any Affiliate thereof, with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee. Any Agent may do the same with like rights. The Trustee, however, shall be subject to Sections 7.10 and 7.11.

7.4. TRUSTEE’S DISCLAIMER.

The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities (except that the Trustee represents that it is duly authorized to execute and deliver this Indenture and authenticate the Securities and perform its obligations hereunder), and the Trustee shall not be accountable for the Company’s use of the proceeds from the sale of Securities or any money paid to the Company pursuant to the terms of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any statement in the Securities other than its certificates of authentication.

 

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7.5. NOTICE OF DEFAULT.

If a Default or an Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the Securities of any Series, and if it is known to the Trustee, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder of the Securities of that Series notice of the Default or the Event of Default, as the case may be, within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default (except if such Default or Event of Default has been validly cured or waived before the giving of such notice). Except in the case of a Default or an Event of Default in payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, any Security of any Series, the Trustee may withhold the notice if and so long as the Board of Directors of the Trustee, the executive committee or any trust committee of such board and/or its Responsible Officers in good faith determine(s) that withholding the notice is in the interests of the Securityholders of that Series.

7.6. REPORTS BY TRUSTEE TO HOLDERS.

If and to the extent required by the TIA, within 60 days after April 1 of each year, commencing the April 1 following the date of this Indenture, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder a brief report dated as of such April 1 that complies with TIA Section 313(a). The Trustee also shall comply with TIA Sections 313(b) and 313(c).

A copy of each report at the time of its mailing to Securityholders shall be filed with the SEC and any stock exchange on which the Securities of that Series are listed. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee when the Securities of any Series are listed on any stock exchange or any delisting thereof, and the Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 313(d).

7.7. COMPENSATION AND INDEMNITY.

The Company shall pay to the Trustee from time to time reasonable compensation for its services. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any provision of law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee within 45 days after receipt of request for all reasonable out-of-pocket disbursements and expenses incurred or made by it in connection with its duties under this Indenture, including the reasonable compensation, disbursements and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.

The Company shall indemnify the Trustee for, and hold it harmless against, any and all loss or liability incurred by it in connection with the acceptance or performance of its duties under this Indenture including the reasonable costs and expenses of defending itself against any claim or liability in connection with the exercise or performance of any of its powers or duties hereunder. The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly of any claim asserted against the Trustee for which it may seek indemnity.

The failure by the Trustee to so notify the Company shall not however relieve the Company of its obligations. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company need not reimburse the Trustee for any expense or indemnify it against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee through its negligence or bad faith. To secure the payment obligations of the Company in this Section 7.7, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities of any Series on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee except such money or property held in trust to pay the principal of, interest and premium, if any, on particular Securities of that Series.

When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(4) or (5) occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any Bankruptcy Law.

For purposes of this Section 7.7, the term “Trustee” shall include any trustee appointed pursuant to this Article 7.

7.8. REPLACEMENT OF TRUSTEE.

The Trustee may resign with respect to the Securities of one or more Series by so notifying the Company in writing at least 90 days in advance of such resignation.

The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series by notifying the removed Trustee in writing and may appoint a successor Trustee with respect to that Series with the consent of the Company, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld. The Company may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series at its election if:

(1) the Trustee fails to comply with, or ceases to be eligible under, Section 7.10;

(2) the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or an insolvent, or an order for relief is entered with respect to the Trustee, under any Bankruptcy Law;

(3) a Custodian or other public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or

(4) the Trustee otherwise becomes incapable of acting.

 

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(5) If the Trustee resigns or is removed, or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee, with respect to any Series of Securities for any reason, the Company shall promptly appoint, by Board Resolution, a successor Trustee.

If a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series does not take office within 60 days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company or the Holders of at least 10% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee.

If the Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series fails to comply with Section 7.10, any Securityholder of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor Trustee.

A successor Trustee shall deliver a written acceptance of its appointment to the retiring Trustee and to the Company. Immediately following such delivery, (i) the retiring Trustee with respect to one or more Series shall, subject to its rights under Section 7.7, transfer all property held by it as Trustee with respect to such Series to the successor Trustee, (ii) the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and (iii) the successor Trustee with respect to such Series shall have all the rights, powers and duties of the Trustee under this Indenture. A successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series shall mail notice of its succession to each Securityholder of such Series.

7.9. SUCCESSOR TRUSTEE BY CONSOLIDATION, MERGER OR CONVERSION.

If the Trustee, or any Agent, consolidates with, merges or converts into, or transfers all or substantially all of its corporate trust assets to, another corporation, subject to Section 7.10, the successor corporation without any further act shall be the successor Trustee or Agent, as the case may be.

7.10. ELIGIBILITY; DISQUALIFICATION.

This Indenture shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of TIA Sections 310(a)(1), (2) and (5) in every respect. The Trustee (or in the case of a Trustee that is a Person included in a bank holding company system, the related bank holding company) shall have a combined capital and surplus of at least $100,000,000 as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition. The Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 310(b), including the provision in Section 310(b)(1). In addition, if the Trustee is a Person included in a bank holding company system, the Trustee, independently of such bank holding company, shall meet the capital requirements of TIA Section 310(a)(2). If at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section 7.10, it shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in this Article 7.

7.11. PREFERENTIAL COLLECTION OF CLAIMS AGAINST COMPANY.

The Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in TIA Section 311(b). A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to TIA Section 311(a) to the extent indicated therein.

7.12. PAYING AGENTS.

The Company shall cause each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to execute and deliver to it and the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section 7.12:

(1) that it will hold all sums held by it as agent for the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any obligor on the Securities) in trust for the benefit of Holders of the Securities or the Trustee;

(2) that it will at any time during the continuance of any Event of Default, upon written request from the Trustee, deliver to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by it together with a full accounting thereof; and

(3) that it will give the Trustee written notice within three Business Days after any failure of the Company (or by any obligor on the Securities) in the payment of any installment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities when the same shall be due and payable.

 

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ARTICLE 8 –

AMENDMENTS, SUPPLEMENTS AND WAIVERS

8.1. WITHOUT CONSENT OF HOLDERS.

The Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may amend, restate or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series without notice to or consent of any Securityholder:

(1) to comply with Section 5.1;

(2) to provide for certificated Securities in addition to uncertificated Securities;

(3) to comply with any requirements of the SEC under the TIA;

(4) to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, or to make any other change herein or in the Securities that does not materially and adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder;

(5) to provide for the issuance of, and establish the form and terms and conditions of, Securities of any Series as permitted by this Indenture; or

(6) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series, and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee.

The Trustee is hereby authorized to join with the Company in the execution of any supplemental indenture authorized or permitted by the terms of this Indenture, and to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations which may be therein contained, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture which adversely affects its own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture.

8.2. WITH CONSENT OF HOLDERS.

(a) The Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may amend, restate or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series with the written consent of the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series affected by such amendment, restatement or supplement without notice to any Securityholder. The Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of each such Series affected by such amendment, restatement or supplement may waive compliance by the Company in a particular instance with any provision of this Indenture or the Securities of such Series without notice to any Securityholder. Subject to Section 8.4, without the consent of each Securityholder affected, however, an amendment, supplement or waiver may not:

(1) reduce the amount of Securities whose Holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver to this Indenture or the Securities;

(2) reduce the rate of, or change the time for payment of, interest on any Security;

(3) reduce the principal, or change the Stated Maturity, of any Security, or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation;

(4) make any Security payable in a currency other than that stated in the Security;

(5) change the amount or time of any payment required by the Securities, or reduce the premium payable upon any redemption of the Securities, or change the time before which no such redemption may be made;

(6) waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, any Security (except a rescission of acceleration of the Securities of any Series by the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

(7) waive a redemption payment with respect to any Security, or change any of the provisions with respect to the redemption of any Securities;

(8) make any changes in Section 6.6 or this Section 8.2, except to increase any percentage of Securities the Holders of which must consent to any matter; or

(9) take any other action otherwise prohibited by this Indenture to be taken without the consent of each Holder affected thereby.

 

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(b) Upon the request of the Company, accompanied by a Board Resolution authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the receipt by the Trustee of evidence reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee of the consent of the Securityholders as aforesaid and of the documents described in Section 8.6, the Trustee shall join with the Company in the execution of such supplemental indenture, unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion, but shall not be obligated to, enter into such supplemental indenture.

(c) It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Holders under this section to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, restatement, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof.

After an amendment, restatement or supplement under this Section becomes effective, the Company shall mail to Securityholders a notice briefly describing the amendment, restatement or supplement. Any failure of the Company to mail any such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any supplemental indenture.

8.3. COMPLIANCE WITH TRUST INDENTURE ACT.

Every amendment to, or supplement of, this Indenture or the Securities shall comply with the TIA as then in effect.

8.4. REVOCATION AND EFFECT OF CONSENTS.

Until an amendment, restatement, supplement, waiver or other action becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder of a Security is a continuing consent conclusive and binding upon such Holder and every subsequent Holder of the same Security or portion thereof, and of any Security issued upon the transfer thereof or in exchange therefor or in place thereof, even if notation of the consent is not made on any such Security. Any such Holder or subsequent Holder, however, may revoke the consent as to his Security or portion of a Security, if the Trustee receives the notice of revocation before the date the amendment, restatement, supplement, waiver or other action becomes effective.

The Company may, but shall not be obligated to, fix a record date for the purpose of determining the Holders entitled to consent to any amendment, restatement, supplement or waiver, which record date shall be at least 30 days prior to the first solicitation of such consent. If a record date is fixed, then, notwithstanding the preceding paragraph, those Persons who were Holders at such record date (or their duly designated proxies), and only such Persons, shall be entitled to consent to such amendment, restatement, supplement or waiver, or to revoke any consent previously given, whether or not such Persons continue to be Holders after such record date.

After an amendment, restatement, supplement, waiver or other action becomes effective, it shall bind every Securityholder, unless it makes a change described in any of clauses (1) through (9) of Section 8.2. In that case, the amendment, restatement, supplement, waiver or other action shall bind each Holder of a Security who has consented to it and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security; PROVIDED, that any such waiver shall not impair or affect the right of any Holder to receive payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, a Security, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates without the consent of such Holder.

8.5. NOTATION ON OR EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES.

If an amendment, restatement, supplement or waiver changes the terms of a Security of any Series, the Trustee may request the Holder of such Security to deliver it to the Trustee. In such case, the Trustee shall place an appropriate notation on such Security about the changed terms and return it to the Holder. Alternatively, the Company, in exchange for such Security, may issue, and the Trustee shall authenticate, a new security that reflects the changed terms. Failure to make the appropriate notation or issue a new Security shall not affect the validity and effect of such amendment, restatement, supplement or waiver.

8.6. TRUSTEE TO SIGN AMENDMENTS, ETC.